Designing Accessories for iOS and OS X

Session 700 WWDC 2013

Learn about services that allow apps to interact with accessories. Understand your options for designing hardware solutions, including the latest on Wi-Fi, AirPlay, Bluetooth, and the Lightning connector.

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Welcome to Designing Accessories for iOS and OS X.

So, my name is Peter Langenfeld.

I'll be walking you guys through the session today, and a little bit about what are we going to talk about.

Of course, we're going to talk about the new features in iOS 7 and in Mavericks.

We want to spend a little bit of time talking about the frameworks that you guys can use as application developers to utilize accessories and to better expand the accessory ecosystem.

And then, of course, we want to focus in on some of the technologies and new things we've done overall and the exciting these exciting parts that we think you guys have opportunities in regarding Wi-Fi, AirPlay, Bluetooth, Lightning connector, few other things that we'll probably touch on in between.

So, first, I want to thank you guys, thank you for coming today, thank you giving me a nice crowd to get nervous in front of.

But also thank you for developing such great devices and accessories.

It really makes us excited everyday to come in to work and to work on the overall accessory ecosystem, see how many cool things appearing for our users to enjoy.

You know, one of the big things that we notice working on accessories in the accessory ecosystem is that you guys have really helped our devices become a part of people's everyday lives, a critical part of that.

And so I want to give you guys a few examples of the things we find really interesting and kind of maybe give you some ideas of areas you can work on and expand on.

Of course, we always like to see new things as well.

So health and fitness is great area that we've been seeing a lot of expansion recently.

You know, in this particular example, we have a blood pressure cuff, but we also have fitness monitors, Wi-Fi scales, things that basically help people to keep track of their everyday lives to become better individuals and to really make the merging of the applications, the iOS device, the Mac device, and the accessory system meshed into their everyday lives and improve life in general.

And we think that's great.

We love seeing it.

Of course, we also have some home products as well.

Here's the Nest thermostat and it really, again, just highlights the fact that you can merge this into your life, you can utilize it, you can decide to save some energy, you can decide to heat up your home, you can decide to see how you're doing as far as performance overall so that you can add something more to your overall experience than just "Oh, I feel cold," or "I feel hot."

You can actually see how things are going and we think that's great.

And then finally, fun.

Everybody likes to have fun.

We like to have fun.

And we think it's fun that you guys have enabled things like they are drawn to play kind of the interactive, virtual reality video games essentially.

And all of that is enabled by accessories.

All of that is enabled by you guys.

And it makes us excited and thrilled to come to work every day, create solutions together that we can really get the overall consumer base excited about.

So how do we do that?

Well, here's the infamous super slide.

These are all the different technologies that we support.

There's obviously many more but we think these ones are particularly important.

And this here, I think, we really want to highlight the fact that OS X and OS 7 iOS 7, excuse me, work together and as app developers and accessory manufacturers, you guys can support both platforms, mostly seamlessly and really support more consumers overall.

So we have a few actual connectivity options listed on the slide.

Of course, Wi-Fi, Lightning, Bluetooth low energy are things that we're very excited about and are pushing forward constantly as far as the technology bases.

But also things such as the 3.5-millimeter jack, the headphone jack are also opportunities for you as developers to take advantage of in both your apps and in the overall accessory ecosystem.

So we want to highlight those things.

Of course, there are also the way you access these things from apps, the actual protocols and the frameworks, like I said, that are available, again, across both OS platforms.

And so let's dive in to a couple of these.

Let's talk a little bit about what you can do with them and we won't be able to hit them all but hopefully, we can give you some ideas of places where you could start developing and getting some exciting products going.

First up, USB Audio.

You access USB Audio as an app developer through the Core Audio Framework that's both on iOS and OS X again.

And, you know, you can design products that are USB 1 compliant and we will support them.

We'd really recommend you guys start thinking about USB 2.0 as a standard and that's on the accessory manufacturing side.

And that's for both input and output devices.

You know, although you can support a number of sampling rights on both the physical device side and the OS, the application side, we want to stress that, you know, 16-bit when you're PCM, 32, 4401, 48 kilohertz is really the standard that we focus in on.

And so we do make it a requirement of all external accessories to support those sampling rights and we would suggest as application manufacturers, application developers, you also focus in on supporting those rights and make sure not to block them from requirement standpoint.

You do have access to multichannel audio on both sides should you choose to use it.

And then finally, of course, volume synchronization.

If you adjust the volume on the OS side or you adjust the volume on the accessory side, the two should be synchronized.

You should get volume increases and decreases as the consumer really sees fit and that's all available to you as well.

So next up, something new.

We talked about this a little bit yesterday and we'll be talking about it more throughout the week, is game controller.

This, we think, is great.

This is something we're really excited about.

We've decided to standardize around the concept that iOS and Mavericks should have a consistent game controller experience that you can use in both places, and that application developers can utilize to create richer, more immersive games.

As you can see, we have a standard game controller and of course, we also expand that out to an extended game controller.

Really, the extended game controller adds a secondary trigger button or shoulder button and some joysticks.

And we do have a session later today actually to talk a little bit more detail about the hardware and the software requirements of that.

Also, reference it a little bit later in this presentation.

But please, if you're interested in game controller, come to the labs, go to the sessions, and really get to know more about this 'cause this is something we think is really to make the game space a great, a better experience than it even is today, and that's hard to create.

Okay. So iPod accessory protocol.

We now refer to this as iAP usually, and you'll hear us all slip in to that, so that's what we're referring to if we talk about it.

And the key here is it's basically how you access a bunch of the system services on iOS.

It's been around since we introduced the 30-pin dock many years ago, we've kept it around.

We continued to expand it.

We continued to think it's a great way to interface with accessories in an Apple-specific way.

We've given you access to the media library, and what that means is you can look at all the metadata on the device, organize as we organize it, and you can on your accessory side, you can decide to display it to your user in a way that you think makes the most sense to them and allow them to browse and use playback controls, et cetera.

Next up, of course, is the accessory external accessory protocol, EA as we like to call it.

It's the best way to have an application talk directly with your physical accessory that you decide to design.

And the exciting part there, I think, is that we also have app discovery and app launch.

So, if someone goes out to the store and decides to buy an accessory for the first time, they plug it in to their device or they connect it to their device.

The first thing that the device does from a system aspect is ask you, "Do you want to download the app for this device?"

It's a great feature.

It prevents people from having to search on the store.

It prevents people from having to look through the manual, et cetera.

And we think people really enjoy it and we love the way it's working out and we hope you guys decide to try and exercise that a little bit too.

The next, location information.

You can decide to expand the location capabilities of your device.

Finally, accessibility.

Obviously, some people, some of our customers need some help in using our devices and we've made these frameworks available to you to make sure you can design accessories that help them use that and help everyone enjoy and utilize their iOS device to its fullest.

Many of the technologies I've been talking about fall under the MFi Licensing Program.

MFi is made for iPod, iPhone and iPod.

And what does it include?

Well, it's a program that gives you access to our connectors, to receive a Lightning connector.

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Our headphone with remote system which is a great way to not only listen to the music and audio from your devices, both on the MAC side and on the iOS side, but also allows you to use the controls.

Again, volume controls, play/pause, all of the things that people are used to using on a day-to-day basis.

Finally, AirPlay licensing, we now allow you to create AirPlay accessories and finally, AirPrint.

And really, the intent here is to make sure that there's a sense of quality for the consumer when they go into a store.

We keep the MFi Program around and we allow the badge to be used on products that Apple and the accessory manufacturers have worked hard to guarantee our solid quality experiences for the consumer.

So, when you go shopping for an accessory, you know with confidence that if I buy this accessory and take it home, it'll work with my device today, and it'll also work with my devices in the future.

If you want to join the MFi Program, we obviously have many people you can talk to in the lab sessions today.

We highly encourage you to chat with us, understand with it's about, understand what you get.

Some of the highlights, you get full technical information of how to interface with our devices.

You get access to all the components, so connectors, headphone, mic and mic systems, et cetera.

All tools that we make available as far as developing accessories, this will help you understand if you're speaking the protocols properly, if you're electrically in sync with our specifications.

And finally, it gives you access to the product certification and the logos and compatibility icons if you pass product certification.

So that's what I'm going to do from a high-level overview.

Obviously, it's a complex phase.

Like I said, we definitely have many lab sessions that we are more than happy and willing to talk to you guys about this.

And, you know, I'm just trying to highlight here that no matter what transport you decide to use, you pretty much have an option to do some sort of communication, whether here it's audio or communication with apps, there's also a number of other options we have.

So, hopefully, you guys are getting inspired, hopefully you guys are getting excited to make some accessories, to make some apps that work with accessories, and we would really enjoy talking to you.

So, please come along and ask some questions.

Let's switch gears just a little bit and let's talk about some of the advances we have in specific technology areas.

First up, I'd like to highlight wireless.

We at Apple think wireless is a great solution, and wireless includes both Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, and Bluetooth low energy of course.

And why we like wireless so much is that the consumer gets to keep the device in their pocket or in their hand, and they don't have to worry about walking over to it and plugging in it or having a forgetting it somewhere and leaving it.

They can just walk into the room where these things exist and they can start using it seamlessly, which we think is great.

On the Wi-Fi front, couple of things we think you guys should be thinking about.

On the software side, definitely realize that networking sockets and ports are your friends.

We have great frameworks for dealing with both.

They're totally open.

You can determine how you want to speak to and communicate with your accessory.

And I also highlight that we have Bonjour, and I'll talk in some more detail in a minute but Bonjour is really the best way we think for consumers to be able to interact with network devices without having to know the technical details of them.

On the hardware front, a couple of things I want to stress, and I've talked about this in the past but hopefully, we can all get on board with this now.

The Wi-Fi Alliance Certification is really important in the Wi-Fi space.

It makes sure and ensures that you have inoperability, it makes sure that when your customer brings the device, it's not going to interfere with other Wi-Fi devices in their home, and it's also going to work well with any brand of router and any brand of infrastructures that they may have.

Dual band operation I think is also something that we like to stress and I realize it's it may seem unnecessary on the accessory front.

But we all have more and more RF interference in our homes.

And obviously, everything is using the 2.4 gigahertz space.

We have Wi-Fi, we have Bluetooth, we have all these technologies, ISM unlicensed band.

And so we really want to encourage you to give the consumer the option to put both 2.4 and 5 gigahertz into the device so they can use whatever gives them the best experience, so, to avoid audio dropouts and communication breakdowns and the fact that if you walk to one corner of your home and your neighbor has a strong Wi-Fi signal, you may get more error rate, et cetera.

If you enable the products with dual band performance, hopefully, we can avoid that and we can get to a better place as far as wireless usability and enjoinment from our consumers.

The final two things are really on the software front but they're specifically targeted towards hardware OEMs.

And so, I want to stress quality of service, WMM, this is an inherent part of 802.11n.

You have to certify for it.

What I really make sure is that high bandwidth and high priority traffic on the network actually gets the priority it deserves.

So, it makes sure that you avoid network dropouts again, it'll make sure you, you know, avoid glitches in your video stream, which is in your audio stream, those sorts of things.

And finally, IPv6 versus IPv4.

Now that we're entering the age of the internet of things, the fact that everything is connected, we're quickly going to start running out addresses.

And so we at Apple, believe strongly we should all be making the transition over to IPv6 and we encourage you guys to make sure that you have the ability to do the same.

A little bit more on Bonjour.

So, as I mentioned before, Bonjour is a zero-configuration networking protocol suite.

Really, what it boils down to from the consumer's perspective is that use a friendly name.

So, you don't have 192.168.0.1 or 10.0.0.1 or something identifying your product.

You name it WAMP or computer or microphone or something that means what it does to the consumer and the consumer has the ability to rename that device and to have the experience to find that device on their network just by using the name that they can remember.

We think that's great.

No worry about IP addresses, no worry about URLs, hopefully, no worry about having to go to the user manual to find out where to find out where they should be going to configure things.

It should just be easy for them to bring something home, put it on their network and enjoy it with the name they recognize.

Next up is network service discovery.

What this does is it allows the well, allows applications to filter down what devices the consumer sees by the actual function that they want to provide.

So, for example for AirPlay, we use Bonjour to make sure to only display those devices that support AirPlay audio coming to them instead of showing all the devices on your network that might perhaps support something that you're interested in.

By doing this, you give to your consumer a much targeted, a much more enjoyable experience 'cause they only see the things that they need, they only see the things that they can use right now for the type of things that they want to do.

We believe so strongly in this.

We've actually made this open source.

It's part of the mDNSResponder project.

You can find it at the address listed there.

We highly encourage you to go and take a look and if you have any more questions about general functionality, obviously you can talk to us in the accessory labs or I'm sure you can find someone in networking labs that can help talk you through this and give all of our consumers a better or raw experience.

Configuring wi-fi accessories.

You know, I talked about this need to make sure we get way from forcing people to go to the user manual and forcing people to come home with their device, set it up, get ready to use it, only to realize, "Oh wait, how do I get this on my Wi-Fi infrastructure?"

But we took care of this a couple years back and we enabled Wi-Fi information sharing.

What it does is you plug the accessory into a physical port or Bluetooth and then it asks you, "Do you want to share your networking credentials to your iOS device that's already on with your accessory?"

Great, perfect.

They can say yes.

They can say no.

Great, it's all configured, you don't have worry about it.

No manual needed.

However, we did hear from a few people, wouldn't it be nice if we didn't have to include a physical port?

Wouldn't it be nice if you can do this Wi-Fi-only?

Well, we agreed and now you can.

So, what I'm showing you here is a Wi-Fi-only way to configure your accessories.

Essentially, what happens on the accessory front is it goes into a software AP mode, software access point mode.

And we identify it as non-configured device.

So, up there on the screen, you can see set up new device.

This is a very similar system that we've had for our AirPort products for a while.

We've just added third parties.

So, you see Thermostat there.

So, if I select Thermostat, I now get the option to join the network to my iOS device that's already on.

I can obviously show other networks so I can select a different network if I like.

And then I can rename it.

If I click on the name accessory name section, I can decide I want to call it something other than Thermostat.

I want to call it, you know, Back Bedroom Thermostat or Garage Thermostat or somewhere else that I want it.

Then I click Next, voila, lo and behold, we securely transfer all the networking credentials including the passwords and anything else that user may not remember down to the accessory.

The accessory rejoins the target network and you're done.

We do have one more thing, if that accessory has an application, we also allow you to the consumer to click on Find Out for this Accessory.

It will do a search and take you directly to the App Store and they can be off on their way again without having to open the manual, without having to think anymore about it.

Of course, we don't want to leave Mavericks out of this.

So, we also have the ability to go up to the Wi-Fi menu, obviously you see new accessory up there, same choices, you select Thermostat, or AirPort updater program launches.

You have the ability to select both of them there.

Again, chose your network, rename if you so please and you're also on the network there.

So, whether you're using Mavericks or whether you're using iOS 7, your consumer now has the ability to get on to the network in easy way only using Wi-Fi.

We think this is great.

It's going to be part of the MFi Program and we're super excited to have people come and talk to us about how you implement this.

So please come and talk to us.

Obviously, one of the great things this pairs with is AirPlay Audio and we've talked about AirPlay Audio a little bit in the past.

It's a third-party program.

It is part of MFi that allows you to configure the device and have it be part of our AirPlay ecosystem so you can stream audio to the third-party device.

We have audio/video receivers, speaker docks, television.

We have all sorts of things in this expansive ecosystem that allows you to listen to your music how you see it fit as a consumer.

But we've had one little snuck in the past.

It's been a little restrictive perhaps.

So I'm happy to announce that we're also transferring this into a more program.

We're going to look at essentially enabling all of you to develop and create AirPlay accessories on whatever platform, on whatever hardware platform you see fit.

It's the same program, same product definitions, same feature set, same terms of compliance, same everything.

It's just that now you get to choose whatever hardware you would like to enable your AirPlay accessories and hopefully, that will give you guys a little bit more flexibility and we'll expand that ecosystem even further.

With that, thank you.

I'd like to bring in my colleague, Brian Tucker, to talk a little bit more about Bluetooth and some of the exciting things we have there.

Thanks guys.

[Applause]

All right.

Thank you, Peter.

My name is Brian Tucker and I am ultimately responsible for Bluetooth at Apple and that includes iOS and now OS X Mavericks.

And I have an incredible honor, the guys gave me the opportunity to come up and talk about what's next for Bluetooth, what are we doing with Bluetooth now, what's the state of the union of Bluetooth?

I'm obviously very, very passionate about this.

I've actually had the opportunity to meet a lot of you in the audience here today.

We do have a followup session to this that specifically covers Core Bluetooth in a lot more detail.

And so what I'm going to do in this session is give you kind of a sneak peak at some of the things that we've done specially in iOS 7 to really take Core Bluetooth to the next level.

So where's Bluetooth today?

Well, Bluetooth is over a decade old.

In fact, it's about 12 or 13 years old now.

Core Bluetooth or Bluetooth low energy just came in the market a couple of years ago, three years ago.

This marks our third iteration of Bluetooth low energy implementations in Apple products, but what's going on?

This last year was crazy.

[laughs] It was nuts.

I mean, one of things that blew me away is in the SIG, we saw 451 percent increase in listed devices for Bluetooth speakers.

I mean that's just nuts.

If you look at the chart, it kind of grows, and then last year, it's just this hockey puck.

And this year is no different.

We're seeing more and more devices get listed in the classic Bluetooth space.

So classic Bluetooth, it is definitely here to stay.

It is still growing by leaps and bounds.

We want to continue to improve that user experience with customers.

You know, we want to do this like make AC perform even better, perform better coax algorithms, to improve audio quality for conversational audio.

All those areas around Core Bluetooth that are key to the customer experience, we want to make better.

And what we're doing with you guys is we're updating our Bluetooth Guidelines document to make better suggestions about how to implement hands-free and HTTP devices, as well as make improvements on [inaudible] in OS X and iOS.

It's pretty cool.

So Bluetooth low energy, obviously, I just spoke of, it's pretty new.

It's only been around four, three years.

But what's amazing is in a few market reports that I've read and have been provided to the Bluetooth SIG, we're going to surpass a billion Bluetooth low energy devices this year.

That's ridiculous.

A Bluetooth a billion Bluetooth low energy devices with a technology that realistically has only been around for a couple of years.

That's insane.

So clearly, this is a huge market for you guys to step into.

And then finally, and I think this is pretty important, is that now every major mobile OS manufacturer supports Bluetooth low energy.

So I like to personally welcome them to the pool, the water is great, but this is awesome because this now gives you the ability to truly look at a technology across the entire spectrum of mobile devices.

So no longer is it just our play, we're going to continue to drive this market forward.

We're going to continue to innovate in this space, but I think it's important to note that everybody feels the same way about Bluetooth low energy that we do, which I think is really, really cool.

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Reference #2.c6524817.1373787862.0 And we wanted to kind of put our money where our mouth is.

We wanted to say, "If these are so important to you guys, if we're saying that these are super important, then what can we do to make these even better?"

So, I wanted to highlight a few of these particular areas.

I'm not going to through all of these.

I don't have enough time.

But I want to highlight a few things that we've done to make some of these user experiences even better.

And the first one I want to talk about is health care.

And like Peter said, health care is growing by leaps and downs.

If you look at what we're doing with LE, we're allowing the consumer to quantify themselves.

I'm not sure I like this concept called quantify itself, but the or the name.

I love the concept.

And the idea is that you as a consumer can now take active control over your own health care.

You can monitor your own blood glucose.

You can monitor your own heart rate.

I saw a product that monitors your blood glucose level and actually gives you real-time body chemistry information as you eat your food.

So, like you can go eat a bagel and your phone will tell you, "Dude, your blood sugar level is spiking, you may not want to have any carbs for lunch," you know, kind of thing.

And that's awesome, 'cause now I can immediately know how the system is operating, right?

And as an engineer, that's huge, [inaudible], right?

And if I have data on my body, I can make the right choices in real-time as I go out throughout my day, huge, huge opportunity here in this market.

Another area is providing a better relationship between the patient and the care provider, the nurse practitioner or your doctor.

And connecting the device that's on your body with the iOS or the OS X device and connecting that to your doctor directly.

So now, the doctor can take an active role in your life without you having to be in the hospital the whole time.

And for my parents, especially, it even gives me the ability to monitor their health remotely.

They live in Arizona, I live in California, it's just peace of mind, but they can still continue to live their lives the way they want to.

I think that's just huge.

It changes the world, right?

Another area where we're kind of we put our money where our mouth is this idea of MFi hearing aids, or Apple designed hearing aid audio transport.

Now, about a year and a half ago, we were looking at this space and we're like, you know, Bluetooth is being used but the experience is just less than ideal.

You had to wear something around your neck, or you had to wear a thing on your belt, and it was like Bluetooth that and magnetic inductance to your hearing aid, or you put it up to your ear and it just sounded really crappy.

And we're like, "We can make this better."

And so, we first started looking at Bluetooth and like, "No, that's not going to work, too much power, the chips are too expensive, they're too big."

And then we started looking at low energy, and I remember having conversations with some chip guys and they literally laughed at us, you know, they didn't think that that is even possible.

But we hammered it and we hammered it, and we came up with a way to push audio down to lower energy link, and this is Apple iP.

And we're enabling the hearing aid market.

In fact this year, we'll start seeing hearing aids on the market using this technology, and it's crazy tool.

I mean, we'll start to see this technology in cochlear implants, where you technically have an audio linked directly from your phone into your brain.

I mean, it's just nutty technology.

And it's also a data pipe.

So, not only that we're pushing audio to your ears but the doctor you can call up the doctor, talk to them on the phone and they can adjust your hearing aids over the phone as you're talking to them, just awesome, awesome stuff.

So this is what I mean about kind of putting our money where our mouth is.

And then finally and this is one of those sneak peeks I'm giving you based on our Core Bluetooth session, but this idea of improved we improved Core Bluetooth backgrounding.

So now with app preservation and restoration, we give the ability to launch apps in the background and interact with Bluetooth low energy devices regardless of the state of your application.

So this gives a whole new market of interaction especially in areas of long-term care and some of the areas I want to talk about here in a minute.

So sports and fitness is the next area.

Now sports and fitness seems to be completely designed for Bluetooth low energy.

Some of the products that we've seen in the market and the space, the Fitbit Flex, a Bluetooth low energy product.

This is really cool.

It monitors your activity, but it also monitors your sleep cycles.

So it tells you how well you slept, as well as how sedentary your life is.

As an engineer, I struggle with this constantly.

But it says, "Get off your butt and go exercise."

It's a great product.

This is one that I'm especially excited about with my kids.

This is soccer ball made by Adidas, the Adidas Smart Ball.

What's cool about this is it has Bluetooth low energy radio in the middle and then sensors that spider out to the outside of the ball.

It looks like a spider exploded inside the ball, right?

And it is connected to the ball and it actually monitors the activity of the soccer ball during use.

So it monitors how well you're passing a ball.

How much spin you're putting on the ball.

In fact, it a has feature where you take a shot on goal and if you're looking particular curve to the shot, it will monitor that curve and then compare your shot against a pro shot and it will actually tell how well you're doing against maybe Beckham.

And you want this, that cool, you know, right to left curve into the top-right or top-left corner of the goal.

This ball will let you do that.

So for coaches, this is huge because it gives you the data.

In addition to that in basketball, there is a product by 94Fifty, a smart ball that does very similar things, but in a basketball space.

You take a shot, it tells you the rotation of the ball, it tells you the shot angle of the ball to the goal, how well you're dribbling.

I mean, it's awesome.

And that somebody like that's a data junky, this is just a really, really great way to get feedback on how well you're doing, as well as how well your athletes are doing if you're a coach.

Really, really cool.

And so, again, we feel like with iOS 7 in the app preservation, you can now do long-term accessory interaction.

Now there is a lot to be talked about in here and a lot more detail in the Core Bluetooth session.

Reno [phonetic] and Jason go in this in great detail and talk about how your apps can really interact with these devices long-term always.

As long as the phone is with the consumer, the phone can interact with these accessories.

So the third thing is security and security is kind of snuck up on us.

Security has just exploded.

In fact, just recently, we're starting to see just a ton of products in the space that are providing you experiences around home similar to the experiences you get around your car with a wireless remote or wireless key.

Kwikset Kevo is a similar product, you walk up, your phone interacts with the door, you touch the door lock and it unlocks.

This is a Kickstarter, guys, Lockitron where a product where it just goes over the door lock and it can open and unlock the door lock.

And then just recently, just a couple of weeks ago, a company called August makes up Smart Lock that does very similar things, beautiful product.

One of the things in their video I thought was really cool is this idea of being able to share your key virtually.

So if I want to allow my plumber, for example, to get in my home, let's say this Thursday which I know I'm not going to be there from 12 to 2, I can send him my key and say, "You can get into my home only from 12 to 2" and oh, by the way, when he does enter the home, his phone tells me that he entered the home and left the home.

It's pretty really, really, really cool stuff.

And, again, we think state preservation and restoration is key here because if the app goes away or dies, you don't have the ability to unlock your door, right?

It doesn't interact with the door because the app is no longer there.

And iOS doesn't a have perceived knowledge of what it means to interact with the door lock.

So this is really, really, really key to this product space and we think that this is going to just explode this market.

Entertainment, so briefly Peter covered this, but I just wanted to cover a couple of areas where entertainment and low energy is converging.

Game controller is obviously an area where Bluetooth low energy is perfect for this space.

The small data packet sizes, the data intervals, the connection intervals that you can achieve just perfectly aligned with game controllers.

Obviously, keyboards, I'm not sure keyboards are entertaining, but you can connect to keyboards maybe to play games that are a little bit more complicated, and then of course, remote controls.

Like this remote control potentially can be LE and probably should be LE given that this could connect directly to an iO or an Apple product.

So, what have we done in this space?

Well, now on iOS 7, we natively support HID over BLE accessories.

So now, if you make a BLE keyboard, you can connect directly to iOS and to OS X Mavericks.

And what's important to note here especially, well, in both platforms is this is the first time that we have supported profiles in the LE space.

That means that device management is now being managed by the OS, but that doesn't take away device management from your apps.

So if your apps still want to discover devices and connect to them and interact with them, they can totally do that.

That's totally fine.

But the case of hosted profiles such as HID over GATT, we now managed those devices for you.

So we felt like it's a more of a system level functionally and we thought it was important for us to put this into the product.

And then finally, proximity, and this has been talked about a little bit.

I've had countless questions, people like, "What's this iBeacons thing?"

You know, all those kind of stuff.

So, I wanted to briefly talk about this.

Some of the areas where proximity is key, we already talked about security, advertising the ability to go into a retail space, and my phone starts to interact with that retail space in an advertising way.

I think Minority Report, but hopefully not that creepy.

Location services, obviously, if I'm up going up to a statue [phonetic] and I want that statue do tell me something about the points of interest, that's really interesting.

So what have we done in this space?

Well, now, natively, we give you the ability to do this iOS to iOS built right within core location.

And this is using Bluetooth low energy.

We don't make it obvious that it's using Bluetooth low energy.

But then you have the ability to engage from consumer to consumer, iOS device to iOS device, these proximity services.

So that's just a few areas that we've been working on in iOS 7.

So as a review, these are some of the new things that we talked about here, Core Bluetooth App Preservation Restoration.

I know it's an interesting name, but it's really cool.

Learn about it.

It will change your life.

BLE based proximity services, we talked about this already.

iOS hosted BLE profiles, HID over BLE.

That should be HID over GATT.

It was the official name.

And then finally, hearing aid support which we think is hugely profound and truly does make a difference in the world which is one of our mission statements in wireless software and we think this fulfills that.

Real quick, this is kind of our state of the union.

This is the classic Bluetooth protocols and profiles that we support in OS X.

You can write this down real quick, no.

These are all available and visible to you in the current release of Mavericks.

And then on the LE side, we have a couple of new roles on the LE side and that is low energy peripheral role.

Apparently, we thought enough about it to add it twice.

And but anyway, we did give you the ability now to offer up services in OS X.

And now on the iOS side, from a Core Bluetooth or from a classic Bluetooth perspective, excuse me, these are the profiles that we're currently supporting.

Nothing new here, just a lot of bug fixes and interrupt ability changes to make our products, our devices work better with your products.

We also continue to support the iPod accessory protocol over Bluetooth and that's still very much an active technology.

I use it every day when I go to sleep.

And then on the LE side, we have a couple of new things there.

As I said before, Alert Navigation Service.

We have this new thing, brand new called Apple Notification Center Service.

There is also going to be documentation posted to the developer site very, very soon, hopefully today.

So check it out in there and a lot of this information will be on that.

And then finally, the current time service is also always available.

So if you have an accessory and you want that accessory to use an accurate schedule or timer, the timer in the phone is always available to you.

So hopefully, that was a very brief informative overview of where Bluetooth is right now within our OS products.

So with that, I'd like to invite up Edwin Foo to run us through Wired and to continue our presentation.

Thank you.

All right everybody, so you're still with us.

Thanks for holding up this far throughout the talk.

I'm Edwin and I am going to spend a few minutes talking with you about some of the Wired interfaces that are available to accessory developers for both iOS devices and Macs running OS X.

Let's start with Thunderbolt.

This has been around for a while a little while now and it has worked out really well for us on the Macs.

Thunderbolt is a high-speed transport that's capable of transferring both data and [inaudible] digital video, namely DisplayPort, at really high speeds and it can handle it can handle, actually be daisy chained up to six devices per port and carry power.

It's a bit of mouthful, but in short what this means is that you can have high transfer speeds, one cable from the Mac to your Thunderbolt accessory so there's no messed up cables.

And, of course, once your users have multiple Thunderbolt peripherals hooked up to their Mac, you still don't have a messed up cables going from the Mac to every single Thunderbolt peripheral.

For applications that require really, really high speed, mass storage really comes to mind as well as digital video of course.

Thunderbolt is a great choice and we strongly consider that you consider using it in accessories like that.

So how do you get started?

Well, first, there is a certification program for Thunderbolt.

And the reason that certification program is there is that it helps ensure a really high quality of offerings to users and customers out there.

They want to be able to buy Thunderbolt peripherals, plug them in, and just have them work.

And that works in both directions because it means that as users and customers get more comfortable with Thunderbolt and depend on it more and more, they'll begin to think less and less about buying your Thunderbolt peripherals and wondering if they'll work with Macs.

For those of you who are interested in buying device drivers for Thunderbolt accessories, refer to the Thunderbolt Device Driver Programming Guide on the Apple Developer website.

Next, I'd like to talk about USB 3.0.

Most Macs today ship with USB 3.0 ports.

And like Thunderbolt, USB ports can also, of course, provide power up to 900 milliamps of it to your USB accessories for power and charging.

USB throughput is still quite fast, although not quite as fast Thunderbolt.

And for those of you who are thinking of making USB mass storage accessories, we definitely recommend that instead of using the USB Mass Storage Class, please consider using the USB Attached SCSI Class.

The performance is much better and all Macs most Macs especially Macs that will be shipping with OS X Mavericks will support this.

And last but not least, we definitely recommend that you have your USB peripherals and accessories certified by the USB Integrators Form.

This will guarantee that your accessories have maximum chance of working out of the box without have additional install additional drivers with Macs and OS X releases down the road.

Next, I'd like to give brief overview of Lightning.

I don't want to spend a whole time at it because we did talk a lot about Lightning last fall, of course.

But to briefly summarize, the Lightning connector is all digital interface.

It is completely reversible so that your users don't need to worry about which way they're plugging in your accessory.

And one interesting thing about Lightning that may not be very obvious to most people, but is actually felt every single day when you plug in your phone to charge it, is that Lightning connectors have a very positive insertion and removal feel.

There was no mistaking when your user has connected their accessory to a phone, and likewise, there is no mistaking when the user is disconnected.

It sounds like a purely mechanical [inaudible] but it actually is contributes greatly to the overall user experience.

Because if you have, I'm sure that some of you in the audience have had experiences with dealing with connectors that feel a little bit loose or slipped out and the like, and that can also sometimes result in a poor experience.

You won't have that with Lightning.

Lightning connectors just stop by the end and they start working.

Another important feature of Lighting which maybe is not necessarily immediately apparent to most people is that it actually provides power on both directions.

Lightning based accessories do not just have to provide power to the Apple devices although of course we love getting power so please send us all you can.

But it is also possible to draw a power from Apple devices.

Now, we do put some limitations on that and some requirements because we don't want users to be wondering why they have this vampire essentially sucking power out of their phone.

But for the right categories of accessories, getting power from an Apple device is a very powerful feature.

It means that your accessory doesn't have to have a battery.

It doesn't have to even have a power supply at the box or even a connector for external power supply.

All you see on the accessory is the Lightning connector.

The Lightning connector also has is multifaceted in terms of its data transmission.

That supports multiple types of connectivity technologies starting with USB host, USB device, and Serial.

Now, the availability of various accessory interface features over these transports does vary based on the transport.

So, we definitely do recommend that your accessories make use of the USB host mode on Apple devices.

And by this, I mean just be clear that the Apple device is playing the role of the USB host and your accessory is a USB device.

As you can see here from the slide, there are more features available today to USB host mode accessories than to USB device mode accessories, and that is definitely a trend that we expect to see continuing forward.

We have a left out Serial though.

Why? Well, Serial interfaces are really, really simple to implement and they're very, very low cost and they're very, very low power, kind of going back to why the question about drawing power from Apple devices.

It's something you should definitely consider if your accessory design falls into that kind of category.

If your data transmission rate is not too high and you're drawing power from an Apple device, you may want to consider that interface.

I also want to talk briefly about the headphone with remote and mic.

One, the most obvious example of course is the EarPods that comes in a box of every iPhone.

Accessory headphones that implement the headphone remote and mic feature all have to use a standardized microphone and transmitter chip.

And what this means is that they all work with all iOS devices and most Macs.

Applications running on iOS devices and on Macs can receive events from the remote control.

So it isn't just limited to changing the volume and starting playback or pausing playback.

And last but not least, I want to bring up the game controller feature one more time and I'm mentioning specifically in the context of Wired accessory interfaces because we're actually very excited to consider what possibilities await for both game developers and game controller manufacturers when you consider the power of tactile feedback from the game controller buttons combined with the multi-touch screen tilt and driver sensors in an iPhone.

We're really looking forward to see what creativity arises from all this.

And not only but the game controller framework is going to be standardized so that if you're making game controllers, you won't need to worry about which apps your game controller is compatible with 'cause the answer is all of them.

And we need to go check the compatibility with every single app out there by trying that yourself.

The inverse holds true for the game developers.

They won't need to have a closet full of game controllers that they keep testing every single time.

For those of you in the audience who are thinking about getting involved with this, with the controller manufacturing inside of things, look for update to the MFi accessory interface specification coming soon.

So, for more information about all the technologies that we talked about today, definitely, feel free to contact any of the three people, named on this slide in addition to visiting the Apple Developer Forums and contacting Apple Developer Support.

There are a bunch of related sessions that you may want to pay attention to as a result of having heard the content mentioned here.

And with that, that concludes the session.

Thanks for attending.

[Applause]

[ Silence ]

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