Introducing the Photos Frameworks

Session 511 WWDC 2014

iOS 8 introduces two frameworks for managing the photo library and enhancing editing in photo, video, and camera apps. Get introduced to the Photos Framework and see how it enables you to build first-class photo browsing and editing apps. Learn about photo editing extensions with the PhotosUI framework and see how to include your own editing features into the built-in Photos app.

[ Silence ]

All right.

Good morning, everyone.

[ Applause ]

Welcome to Session 511.

This is the "Introduction to the Photos Frameworks", collectively known as PhotoKit.

And my name is Adam Swift.

No jokes, please.

I'm a software engineer on the iOS Photos Frameworks Team.

All right.

So, we're really excited about introducing you to PhotoKit today.

PhotoKit is comprised of two frameworks.

The first framework is the Photos Framework, which gives you access to the photos and videos from the user's photo library.

And you can use it to build a full-featured app like the built-in Photos application.

The second framework is the Photos UI framework, and this is a framework that will allow you to build a photo editing extension, app extension, that can be used right within the built-in Photos app.

So, in this session we're going to focus first on how you can use the Photos Framework to fetch and manipulate photo library model data, handle external changes, and both retrieve and edit photo and video content in the iOS 8 photo library.

Then we're going to turn our attention to the PhotosUI Framework and walk you through the steps and the concepts you need to understand in order to build your own app extension for editing photo and video content.

All right.

So, let's get started with the Photos Framework.

The Photos Framework is a new Objective-C framework in iOS 8.

And it allows you to make your application a first-class citizen of the system photo library for everything, from something simple like a custom image picker in your application to going and building a full-featured custom application for browsing the photo library and editing.

And we really believe in this because we're using the Photos Framework in our own Photos and Camera applications that are built-in in iOS 8.

For those of you who have worked with photos in the past, this Photos Framework is designed to supersede the ALAssetsLibrary, which doesn't provide, [ Laughter and Applause ]

which doesn't provide much of the functionality and features that you'll get with the Photos Framework.

So what do you get with the Photos Framework?

You get access to photo and video assets, albums and moments, something you didn't get with the assets library.

And then you can also add, remove, modify assets and albums right in the system-wide photo library.

You can then also edit photo and video content and metadata that is written directly into the system photo library.

We're excited about it, too.

That's okay.

So, we're going to walk through this API in a couple of steps.

The first section is going to focus on the model data and this is going to walk you through how to fetch the model objects, how to change model data, how to handle external changes.

And then we'll turn our attention to working with the image and video content of those assets, how to retrieve it efficiently, and tips for working with different types of image and video content, and then how to go ahead and make changes and apply those back to the photo library.

So I'm going to start off looking at model data.

So, model data in the Photos Framework is represented with what we call model objects.

And these represent the structure of the photo library.

These are the records that represent photo and video assets, moments, albums and folders.

And the key concept I want you to take away from this section, one of the key concepts is that model objects that are presented in the Photo Framework are read-only, and that is a nice benefit because it means you can work with those objects in a thread-safe manner.

You can pass them between threads without worrying about their data changing out from underneath you.

There's no worries about locking and handling concurrent changes.

So I'd like to walk through the different model objects that we provide with an illustration using the built-in iOS 8 Photos application.

So we'll start with the assets.

These are the photos and videos that you see here in the Photos App.

And then containing assets, we have at the next level up, Asset Collections, what we call Asset Collections in the Photos Framework.

And in the case we're looking at a view that shows moments.

And a moment is comprised of a collection of assets.

At the next level above that, we have what we call Collection Lists, and these are lists of Asset Collections.

And in the case you're looking at here, we're seeing the year moment view, which is comprised of a series of moments, which then in turn are comprised of assets.

Now let's walk through these Model Objects in terms of the APIs that are exposed to you through the Photos Framework.

The first one we'll look at is the Assets, the photos and videos.

And photos and videos assets are represented by the PHAsset class.

And as you look through this UI in the Photos Application, you can see it's a photo.

That's the media type.

But then at the top of the screen you can see we're displaying the creation date and the location, which are both properties of the asset.

Down at the bottom of the screen you can see an icon representing a heart, that is, whether that asset has been marked as a favorite.

And these are all properties available to you in the model object, PHAsset.

At the next level up we're talking about the Asset Collection and, again, we're illustrating that with the moment.

An Asset Collection is a general ordered collection of assets, so there are a couple of different types.

We've got moments, like you can see here.

But we also have albums and smart albums.

The Asset Collection, unsurprisingly, represented by the PHAssetCollection class, and it has the properties of the type, title, and start and end date.

And you can see these properties reflected in the UI.

Going one level higher, we have the Collection List.

And a Collection List is an ordered collection of collections.

And in the case we're looking at here, we've got a moment year.

But you can also have a Collection List that represents a folder.

And something that's unique about a folder versus a moment year type of Collection List is that a folder can actually contain subfolders as well as albums.

So that's why we say an ordered collection of collections where those collections might be an Asset Collection or a Collection List.

The Collection List class is the PHCollectionList and, similar to the Asset Collection, has a type, title and a start and end date.

So when you want to work with these model objects, you need to get them out of the photo library.

So, in order to get these model objects out of the photo library, the key concept here that I want you to focus on in this section for fetching, is that you use the class methods on the model object that you want to fetch out.

So when you want to fetch out assets - say, you wanted to fetch all of the video assets - you look for the class method on the PHAsset class, fetchAssetsWithMediaType, specifying the media type video.

Similarly, as I said before, a moment is a type of Asset Collection.

So to fetch moments, we use a class method on the Asset Collection class, to fetchMomentsWithOptions.

Now in both of these examples I've omitted the options, but they give you an opportunity to do things like filter or sort the results that you get back.

So the next key concept I want to cover as far as collections are concerned is that collections in the Photos Framework runtime don't actually cache their contents.

[ Cough ]

Excuse me.

So what that means is that in order to find the assets that live in an album you need to perform a fetch similar to the ones that we just saw for general purpose fetching.

So here's an illustration of that.

To fetch the assets in an Asset Collection represented by an album, we're getting back assets, so we use a class method on the PHAsset class and fetchAssetsInAsset Collection:myAlbum.

Now the next construct that I want to cover here is something we call a Transient Collection.

And this is a really useful construct that we've made a lot of use of in the photos application where we wanted to represent a collection that isn't represented in the actual photo library.

An example of that is a search result or a user selection as they're picking off items in the UI.

And by taking that selection of items or model objects and putting it into a Transient Collection, the benefit is the Transient Collection is interchangeable with the regular collections that you might fetch out of the photo library.

So you can do things like reuse your existing view controllers or fetch the contents of a Transient Collection without worrying about whether it's represented by something that really exists on the photo library or if it's just something that your user is working with in the runtime.

To create a Transient Collection there's a class method on the Asset Collection class to create a Transient Asset Collection.

You could also create a Transient Collection list.

But to create a Transient Asset Collection we call transientAssetCollection WithAssets and simply pass in an array of assets as well as an optional title.

So what are you getting back when you perform these fetches?

Most of the time when you're writing an application to work with photos, you're going to be reading those objects, looking through them, working with them.

So we wanted to make it as simple as possible to get those objects out and to work with them directly.

So you wanted to get synchronous results and you want them quickly.

But, especially when you think about iCloud Photo Library, the results of the fetch could be potentially very large, in the tens of thousands of assets or even more.

So it's really important that you don't fetch all those objects into memory at once.

And you really want to work with them in batches as you're working with them or displaying them on screen.

But we didn't want to put that complexity on you.

So what we did is we've introduced a class to represent the objects that you get back from a fetch called a PHFetchResult.

And the PHFetchResult takes care of tracking the full results set by keeping track of the lightweight IDs representing each of the contents of that fetch.

But when you access the contents of that fetch result to pull one of the objects out, we'll vend you a fully realized object that you can work with.

It's got an API that's familiar and similar to the NSArray so it should be easy to work with.

And I'd like to show you an example of what it looks like as you're working with a fetch result.

So on the slide here I've shown a fetch result that's representing, say, a fetch of 10,000 assets and as we're iterating through that result set, pulling out assets, as we access one of the indexes, we'll behind the scenes pull in a full batch to represent that object as well as many of the others.

And as you iterate through over that batch to the next batch, we'll pull in the next batch of objects but release the previous ones so you don't wind up holding onto all that in memory.

So now that you've got the [applause] - ah, thanks.

Now that you've got model objects that you're working with in your application, your user may, will, oftentimes want to make changes to those objects.

So I want to take a look at how you can make model changes with those model objects to support things like the user wanting to favorite a photo or add a photo to an album because, as I said earlier, the model objects themselves are read-only so you can't mutate them directly.

So the way we express changes is through a Change Request API that's based on change request classes that you create in a change request block and then hand to the photo library so that it can apply those changes asynchronously out of process.

And the reasons those changes are applied out of process and asynchronously is twofold.

The first reason is, for some operations, it may be very expensive or processor-intensive or just take a long time.

But even more importantly than that, because you're working with the user's actual photo library, some of those actions may require user authentication.

For example, if you wanted to delete 10 photos, the photo library's going to prompt the user to say, "Is this application allowed to delete these 10 photos?"

to allow the user to have a chance to confirm that.

So let's take a look at the change request classes.

It's actually pretty simple.

For each model object class, there is a change request class.

We've got the AssetChangeRequest, the AssetCollectionChangeRequest, and the CollectionListChangeRequest.

And each of these change request classes provide model object-specific APIs to allow you to perform the types of changes that they allow.

So the example I'm showing here is for the asset change request where you can set the creation date for an asset or to set it as a favorite.

Some other things to understand about the change request classes is that they are not subclasses of the model classes.

And there's a good reason for that.

We wanted to provide a really clear separation between the thread-safe, immutable model objects and the objects that express mutations.

That's the change request classes.

These change request classes are also only valid to work within a change request block.

So I'd like to illustrate that with an example now.

So here's an example where I've provided a sample implementation of a method to toggle whether an asset has been marked as a favorite.

So the first thing we'll do in this method is ask the shared photo library to perform some changes, and we'll pass in a change request block here.

First step in that block is to create a change request for the asset that we were provided in the method.

And we're using the PHAssetChangeRequest class here you can see.

And then the last step is simply to set on the change request the value of Favorite to the inverse value of what the asset currently has.

That's enough for the block to get passed to the photo library and those changes to be performed on your behalf.

After those changes are performed we'll call back the completion handler and let you know if it was successful in performing those changes.

So one other aspect of working with change requests that you'll want to do is to create new model objects.

And you can create new model objects with these same change request classes but creating a different kind of change request using a creation request.

So in this case I've shown as an example where you can create a new asset from an image using the creationRequestForAssetFromImage class method.

And if all you want to do is create a new asset from an image, you're done.

You just make this call within a change request block and the library will take care of adding the asset.

But if you want to work with that asset within that change request block to do some additional work, say, to add it to an album, well, remember that the asset won't actually be created until the work is performed out of process.

So within the same change request block you can access a placeholder object from the change request representing that new unsaved object.

And then you can use that placeholder to add the new asset to a collection or even potentially a new placeholder for a collection.

One other thing you can get from a placeholder object is you can access the localIdentifier which is a unique string that you can use later in your application to fetch that object back even on another invocation.

So what happens to these changes?

Well, the changes are done when the completion handler is invoked.

But the model objects are read-only and they aren't automatically refreshed or modified out from underneath you.

But more important than these two things when we're talking about changes, there's a really important thing to understand.

The changes that you requested may incur side effects or may be influenced by external changes coming in from elsewhere.

In fact, there are a lot of sources for change into the photo library.

There's your application.

There's the built-in application.

There's iCloud Photo Library, Cloud Photo Sharing and my Photo Stream.

And all of these things can have an impact on the data that you're working with.

So what we recommend is that, instead of trying to take the result of a change in your completion handler, you work with a single change notification system to handle changes there and reflect them to your user that way.

So what happens is, anytime there is a change to the photo library, we'll publish a PHChange to registered observers.

And that change is delivered on a background queue and it provides details on updated and deleted objects.

But where it begins to get really powerful is when you're working with fetch results, where it can provide you details on what indexes and objects were inserted, updated, deleted or moved that apply to that fetch result.

And I want to dig a little deeper into the fetch result change details.

When you create a fetch result by performing a fetch for a collection or any other general-purpose fetch, the fetch result will implicitly register itself with the photo library for calculating changes.

And all those changed details are calculated in the background so they don't run while your user is interacting with your application.

If you're fetching a fetch result and you're not interested in change details, you can opt out of the difference calculation via one of those fetch options.

But if you do want the details, if you want those incremental differences, then it's important that you get the updated fetch result for the fetch result that you started with from the PHFetchResultChangeDetails object.

And I'm going to walk you through an example to demonstrate why that's so important.

When the photo library receives a change, if you've registered yourself as an observer, we'll call the PhotoLibraryDidChange method and pass you the PHChange instance.

In this case, in this example, which by the way, this example is taken from the sample code that's provided with this session, so I've omitted some of the details to make it a little clearer on stage, but all of this is available in the sample code that you can download from the WWDC website.

Anyway, getting back to that.

The first thing we're going to want to do in our change handler here is to dispatch to the main queue.

And the reason for that is because we're going to work with our user interface objects, our view controllers, and you know it's only safe to access those on the main queue.

So once we've dispatched to the main queue we'll ask the change instance, "Were there any changed details for the fetch result that we are working with in our view controller?"

And in this case, we've got - I've represented self.assets.

That's a fetch result that we're presenting in a collection view.

So if there's a change that affects the collection view, the contents of that collection view, we want to know what those details are.

So we'll ask the change instance for those change details.

And if there were any change details then we know we need to update our fetch result based on what those changes were.

And the way to get those details, or to get that updated fetch result as I was saying, is to get it directly from the change details object.

The change details have already done that work for us, and that way we're sure that the other details we're going to ask for about inserts, updates and deletes are going to exactly match up to the new result that we're working with.

So on the second slide here, I'm going to show you how nicely this works with an object like the collectionView.

So now we can tell the collectionView to perform a batch of updates and walk through the changed details to see where there removed indexes?

If there were, we'll translate them into index paths that the collectionView can understand and tell it to delete the items at those paths.

Similarly, we'll ask the change details, were there inserted indexes in that fetch result?

If there were, we'll tell the collectionView again to insert items at those paths.

And same with changed indexes that affect the fetch results.

We'll ask the collectionVew to reload those items.

So now I'd like to take a moment to show you a demonstration of the sample code that we've provided with this session.

So the first thing I'm going to do before I actually run the sample app is just give you a view of the photo library that we're working with here.

And so I'm running the iOS 8 built-in Photos app.

And you can see I've got a series of Smart Albums in this album list here and, in particular, I've got nine photos in my Favorites Library.

Now I'm going to switch over to the sample application and we've got a listing here with a special entry on top, all the photos in the Photo Library.

We can take a quick look.

You can see we've got a pretty good-sized library here.

But we have also got those Smart Albums.

So I'm going to tap on the Favorites Album and you can see it's the same contents.

But it's pretty obvious that one of the photos in this group doesn't belong.

So I'm going to tap on my moose and you can see when you look at the sample code, we're going to use - I'll bring up the menu with this Edit button.

When I press Unfavorite, the code is going to create a change request to set that asset as not being a Favorite anymore.

Okay? When I back out to the Favorites smart album you'll notice the moose is gone.

Nothing in the code actually asked to remove that moose from that Smart Album.

This is one of those side effects I was talking about where a change that I requested has triggered a secondary change that was reflected in the user interface.

Now if we switch back to the built-in photos application, you can see that change is immediately reflected there as well.

The photo's been taken out of that Favorites Smart Album, too.

Now there's one other thing I want to quickly go through to show you in terms of the sample code, and that is if I go into the photo list and I find a photo that I think the user wants to delete, where I as the user want to delete, I'm going to go ahead and create a - if you look at the sample code - you'll see I create a Delete change request.

But there's no code in the application to provide this prompt.

This is the photo library performing some work out-of-process to let the user know that an application has requested a change that's destructive to their library and asking for confirmation.

So you can see, "Allow Sample Photos App to delete 1 photo?"

And in this case I'm not going to delete it.

But you can see how some of the work that is performed out of process can have such an impact on your changes.

All right.

Well, that covers the work with model objects that I wanted to introduce from the Photos Framework.

But there's a lot more that you could see in the sample application when you look at all the images and image data that was presented.

So I'd like to invite Karl up to talk about image and video data, thanks.

[ Applause ]

So, good morning.

My name is Karl Hsu.

I also work on the iOS Photos Frameworks.

So we've just spent a little while talking about how you can discover and work with the structure of the user's photo library.

And that's great.

But we're missing a key ingredient because it is the user's photo library.

How do we actually get a hold of and display image and video data?

Before we begin, it's useful to know that the user's photo library actually caches a variety of representations for each asset.

For images, we might have representations that vary all the way from the full size original all the way down to small thumbnails.

Videos might be cached in a variety of bitrates and sizes.

They might even be streaming, okay?

With iCloud Photo Library we might not actually have all of those representations cached on disks.

Some or all of them, or in some cases, even none of them might be available.

That makes it kind of a pain when you want to display image data.

So what we have is we provide you with a class, the PHImageManager.

The PHImageManager's job is to abstract a way, sort of this, your decision, from having to decide, you know, do I want a thumbnail, do I want a medium size, a large?

What do you want?

So basically it's a usage-based API.

For images, you tell us how big do you want the image?

What are you trying to do with it?

Are you trying to display it in a small grid on the screen?

Are you trying to - you want the full size?

You want something that's screen size?

And we'll try to find the right, the best available representation we have for you.

Similarly, videos.

You tell us what quality you'd like and what you plan on doing with it.

Is it just for user playback?

Are you planning on exporting it?

Or are you going to work with it in some other way?

And we'll try to pick the right representation.

One key thing here is that unlike the model object API, which is largely synchronous, the image request APIs are largely asynchronous.

And that's because even if the data is available locally, we may have to do work before we can hand you the data.

JPEGs have to be read off a disk.

They have to be decoded.

But the most important case is in the case of something like iCloud Photo Library, we may not have the data locally available at all, right?

We may have to go out to the network, get it and then bring it back to you.

So let's take a quick look at what that looks like.

This is a very straightforward fetch request.

I'm sorry, image request.

In this case we're trying to fill sort of a straightforward four-across grid on an iPhone.

It turns out to be about 160 by 160 pixels.

So we set the target size, we tell it that the image should fill that target size, and then we issue the request.

And when it comes back, if there's any image data available, we'll hand it to you.

The Info Dictionary is there and we'll tell you a little bit more about what we handed you back.

Specifically, is it a substandard?

Is it the right size?

It's good.

So let's take a look at a little bit more of an advanced image request.

So when you want to make a more advanced request, you create an ImageRequestOption.

In this case, after I create the option, I really want this photo, right?

So I'm going to tell the option that, yes, it's allowed to go out to the network.

It can go out to iCloud and fetch the data down.

And because that might take a little bit of time, I'd like a progress handler as well.

Again, this is a good idea.

You can always show the user that we're, in fact, doing work, okay?

And then, finally, just set it as an option when you actually make the request.

I want to spend a second and talk about the callback that actually produces the data.

There's two things to keep in mind.

Again, this block will be called back on the main thread.

And the reason is because the feeling is that generally you want to use it for - if it's an asynchronous callback, you're typically using it for display on the main thread.

There's an optional way to make a synchronous request if you're working in background threads.

Okay. The other thing is actually, this block can be called multiple times for each request because it turns out that a really common UIDesign is the user wants to see their image data as soon as possible.

So if we have any image data available we'll return that to you right away.

And then, if that isn't sufficient to fulfill your request, we go out, possibly to the disk, possibly to iCloud.

We'll go get the data and, when it arrives, then we'll call it a second time.

[ Applause ]

Thank you.

Of course, if the data's already available, then you only get the first callout.

Let's take a quick look at requesting videos.

So in this case, the user has scrolled to some video and they just want playback.

So we're requesting a PlayerItem for the video.

When we get back a player item you can create an AVPlayer out of it.

It looks very much like the Image Request.

It's pretty straightforward.

And, again, if we want a more advanced request - let's say, the user now wants to push this video up to their own sharing service, a different sharing service.

So now we're going to create a VideoRequestOption.

And, of course, because we're sharing it, we want it to be high quality.

Maybe you're on an iPhone and you wanted the full 1080p, okay?

So, we want it to be high quality and if it's not available - because we were playing it before.

That might have been streaming.

We are, you know, we say, okay, it's all right.

You can go out to the network and download it.

And it's particularly important for videos, of course, to have progress because videos can be very large.

And then, finally, we set the option.

Note here that we're actually using a slightly different API.

We're specifically requesting an export session rather than a playback item.

So this is good.

We can fetch individual images, and that works pretty well.

But, it's really common for a photo app to want to show lots of images.

The user doesn't want to scroll through their images one at a time.

They want to see a grid of images in either a regular square grid or a more interesting, you know, tile and brick mortar layout.

That poses some performance problems.

Even if the individual images are relatively cheap, there's a lot of them.

So what do we do?

The general thing that people want to do is you create a cache around what the user's looking at.

You figure out which direction they're going and you start caching ahead of them and you stop caching behind.

So this is a pain, right?

You kind of have to track all of this data.

You have to know to retrieve stuff from that cache.

We've already got an API for doing a lot of this.

And that API is the PHCachingImageManager, okay?

The caching image manager's job is exactly what it sounds like.

Its job is to cache images on your behalf, okay?

As you make requests against the caching image manager, if it's in its cache, it will return that directly.

And if not, it will automatically fall back to the default image request behavior.

Now the general suggestion is that you create a caching image manager for each sort of distinct view controller that you have in your app.

That's because each view controller typically has its own display of image data, right?

You know, a grid view controller is going to behave - it's going to need different caching behaviors than like a one-up view where you're scrolling through.

So let's take a quick look at what I'm talking about here.

So we have the user's phone.

They're looking at some nice pictures and they're scrolling through it.

Now this is what the user sees.

But we know that underneath what they actually have is this sort of long scroll view of photos above and behind.

And what they only see is the visible range.

So as they're scrolling down, we want to start caching ahead of where they are so that the data's available immediately when you need to display it to the user.

And, of course, for memory reasons, we want to stop caching behind.

You just sort of calculate this range and maintain it, and as you scroll just keep updating.

Okay? The API for the caching image manager is actually pretty straightforward.

You calculate what's going to be visible soon.

You tell us to start caching it.

And as stuff is scrolled off, you tell us to stop caching it.

The only key thing here is when you start and stop caching, use the same target size, content mode, and options that you will use for the actual request image.

Otherwise, we don't know how to look it up.

So now we know how to get hold of image data and we know how to get a hold of it fast.

We know how to get a hold of video data.

But, of course, just looking at data's only half the story.

Users love to touch their photos.

They want to adjust them, crop it so it looks just right, apply a filter so their kids look, you know, extra special pretty.

So let's talk about editing.

If the asset is editable, the edits are now in place.

Okay? You no longer need to save your edits as a new asset.

You can edit any asset that's editable.

The edits are, just like in the real photos out there, are nondestructive.

The user can always revert.

You can also programmatically revert.

Changes that you make are visible everywhere.

They'll show up in your app.

They show up in the Photos app.

They show up in mail messages, other 3rd-party apps.

And with iCloud Photo Library they're actually visible across all of your devices as well.

Okay. So how does editing work?

Well, at a very simple, basic level, you ask us for an input image.

We hand it to you.

And you do whatever transformations you want to do on it.

You can crop it.

You can edit it.

You can go and do, you know, pixel operations on it.

And when you're done, you generate a new image, a new output image, and you hand it to us, and then we save it on top of the asset.

That's it.

So let's take a look at how that works, okay?

First you want to ask us for the input image.

You ask the asset for its content editing input, okay?

And what that comes with is, the content editing input carries a bunch of information that you'll need in order to actually do your work.

It gives you a URL with a reference to the full size asset.

It gives you some orientation information.

So, in this case, I'm creating a Core Image image and I'm sure I'm going to be using some of the new filter stuff that we have available for you now.

And I'm going to do some work.

So, I've done some work.

You just cropped it.

Maybe you applied a filter.

It looks great.

How do we save it?

Well, you create, ta-da, a Content Editing Output.

You take your data, the fully-rendered output, save it as a JPEG, write it to the URL, and then you set the adjustmentData.

I'll talk about the adjustmentData in just a second.

And then how do you save it?

It's the same as saving any other model change.

You create an PHAssetChangeRequest.

You sent the content editing output on it, put the whole thing in a change block, and that's it.

So, it's a little bit misleading, actually when I said it was that simple.

So there's another wrinkle, which is, what if someone has already edited that image?

Well, the key point here is that actually when you edit an image you actually have the base image and some adjustment data.

Your output image, the thing that you give us at the end, is actually the result of applying this adjustment to the base image.

So, really, what we hand you is the base image plus whatever adjustment data is already on that image.

And that way the user can continue editing as if they had never left their editing session, right?

You do a crop-down and then what we hand you is the original plus the crop information so that you can show the user the crop, that they can extend the crop in and out.

They can remove it entirely.

They can change it.

And when you're done, you hand us your output image and the new adjustment data.

So that cycle will just continue.

So the next person that asks will get back the base image plus the new adjustment data.

So how do you save the adjustment data?

Well, the adjustment data actually can be - you use a PHAdjustmentData object, but really the data can be whatever you want, all right?

For instance, it could be the name and parameters for a Core Image filter.

It could be anything that you want that describes your edits.

Notice here that actually beyond just that data we also ask you to include a format identifier and a format version.

They basically are a way for you to identify what edit it actually is.

Who did this edit?

What's the format of it?

Okay? And I'll talk a little bit more about that in a second.

So, I misled you again.

There is one additional case, of course.

What if someone else had edited the image?

The scenario that I described before is great if you were the one who previously edited it.

But if somebody went to App A and they applied a crop?

And then they go to App B and they want to do more editing?

Well, you have to tell us whether you understand the adjustment data.

We'll ask you.

We'll give you the PHAdjustmentData.

And you tell us.

Do you understand what this is?

So, looking at this, this actually seems relatively straightforward but we're not putting any restrictions on what the format identifier and the format version can be.

Several developers from different companies could, for instance, get together and define a common identifier and version and, you know, adjustment data format.

And that way the user could move seamlessly between those apps.

Okay. But let's see what happens, depending on what you return when we ask you this question, can you understand this?

Do you understand it?

Yes. You say, yes.

That's great.

We'll hand you the base image and the adjustment data and you can behave as if the user had just sort of turned around, waited a second, and come back and started editing again.

That's sort of the ideal case.

But what if you tell no, you don't?

Well, in this case, unfortunately, we don't have any choice.

We have to hand you the fully rendered output from the previous edit.

So the user can continue editing but they can't back out.

Like, in this case, the previous app applied a noir filter and it's effectively blocking my filter.

We've thrown away the color information.

We don't have it.

If the user wants to go back, they basically have to revert back to original.

Okay. So, let's take a quick demo.

So, here we are.

So, this is what we had before.

And I want to take a look.

Let's see.

Let's look at our Favorites again.

And here we go.

She looks very nice.

But I want to play with it a little bit.

I think that this photo could be better.

So, actually, I'm going to - let's try Posterize.

You know what?

I didn't - I don't know.

That doesn't look quite right to me.

Okay? So at this point we started with the original image and there are no adjustments.

So we didn't even ask, "Do you understand?"

because it doesn't matter.

We have the base image.

This time, when I go into edit, what's going to happen is we're going to say, do you understand the edit?

And this app happens to be the same app.

So I says yes, I understand.

So this time I hand you the base image, which is effectively the original, plus the adjustment that did the Posterize which allows us to switch it completely.

And now it's in Sepia, right?

But it's not sepia applied on top of the Posterize.

It's Sepia applied instead of the Posterize.

Actually, I kind of like this.

I think I'm going to leave it.

I like that old-time look.

And just to prove it, look.

The Photos app sees it as well.

All right.

So we've talked about doing this in the context of your own application, but, of course, as we showed in the Keynote, we can do this from inside of the Photos app as well.

And to tell you about how to do that, Simon Bovet.

[ Applause ]

Good morning.

My name is Simon Bovet.

And in this last part of the session, let's talk about Photo Editing Extensions.

So what are Photo Editing Extensions?

How can they be useful to you developers?

And what do they bring to our users?

So it's a new feature in iOS 8 that allows the users to access to your Image or Video Editing tool right from within the built-in camera or photo applications.

No need for the user to switch between applications.

No need for the user to grant specific access rights to your application.

It's a very simple way for your tool to reach its audience.

And we think it's a great way to put your creativity inside the hands of our users.

So this feature has been shown in the Keynote on Monday, but let me refresh your memories with a few slides.

So here we are on iPhone editing an image using the iOS 8's built-in Photos application.

The user can tap on the top left button and access any available editing extension.

Can pick one.

And this could be your Editing tool extending the reading capabilities of the built-in apps.

So now the user can interact with whatever interface you want to provide.

And when the user is done, the changes are saved right in place inside the user's photo library.

No need to create the duplicated assets.

And if the user has turned on iCloud Photo Library, those changes will be applied to all of the devices.

So the user could go on his iPad and then draw your beautiful effects on a larger screen.

So, what do you need to create your own photo editing extension?

And it turns out that it's really simple.

It's basically three steps.

The first one is to create an app extension target.

The second one is to provide a view controller which will manage the UI of your extension.

And then this view controller needs to adopt a specific protocol which is a set of methods that Photos will call in order to communicate with your extension.

The good news is the first two steps are really easy thanks to the new Xcode.

Basically all that you need to do is, from your application's Xcode project, add a new target and select the Photo Editing Extension template.

Xcode will create whatever is necessary for you go get started and have something working.

It will create a view controller which you can start using or which you can replace with your own if you happen to have your existing tool or view controller that you want to reuse.

A note about the user interface.

You've seen photo extensions are shown fullscreen.

Now on the top bar, with the Cancel and Done buttons as well as the title of your application, it's shown automatically for you by the Photos app.

So if you, say, you'd like to design your extension not to have its own navigation bar.

Now onto the protocol adoption, so the protocol which is specific to photo extensions.

And this protocol is defining the photo's UIFramework and is the PHContentEditingController.

It consists of four methods.

And the first one, quite obviously, is called when the user selects your extension.

And this where you get the input data before your extension is presented onscreen.

A simple implementation could look like this.

And the first thing you might notice is that the input object which is given to you, the PHContentEditingInput, is exactly the same object as the one Karl described just a few minutes ago.

So, basically, we have the exact same classes, the exact same concepts, as when editing a photo using the photo's framework just here wrapped slightly differently for the specific needs of an extension.

So, you would typically read out the input image.

In this particular case we're going to work with a display-size representation.

We don't need the full-size image right away here.

Then we're going to decode any input.adjustmentData or fall back to some default settings if there's none.

Then you set up your user interface the way you need it.

And you typically find it's useful to hold on to the input object that was given to you.

Now the user will interact with your extension.

And when the user is done, the second method will be called.

And this is when your extension, we need to provide the final output data and hand it back.

Second implementation can look like this.

For images, you drag a JPEG representation of the full-size image with your effects applied to it.

You still create this adjustment's data object which describe whatever you've applied to the input image.

And then you create an output object that wraps all this information.

And when you're done, you call the completionHandler.

You notice in this example that the flow is synchronous, but it doesn't have to be.

If you prefer to have an asynchronous workflow, it's totally fine.

You just have to call the completionHandler when your output is ready.

Now you remember the story about resuming editing.

So we imagine that the user selects your extension using an image or a video that already has been edited and that has some adjustments data.

You remember the first question that we asked you is, do you understand that given the existing adjustment data on it, and that way we can provide you with the appropriate input.

And this is when this method can handle adjustments data is going to get called a new extension.

And, typically, implementation could be as simple as checking whether you support the formatIdentifier and version of this adjustment data.

And, finally, the last method pretty obviously is when the user cancels your extension.

One thing to notice, which isn't obvious, is that this method can be called at any time.

So, for example, if your extension requires some time to produce the output - for example, you're editing a video - the user could decide to interrupt you and cancel right away at any time.

So just keep that in mind.

And this is basically all what you need to create your own photo editing extension.

So we are really excited to see all the tools that you are going to create and all the great ideas that you are going to provide to our users using this API.

And let me conclude with a short demo of that in action.

So let's switch to our demo device.

And I'm going to go to the Photos application.

And here is the image that has been just applied or just has been edited by Karl with this Sepia filter.

Now it turns out that this simple app is actually vending a photo editing extension.

So what I can do is right from within the Photos app, tap Edit, select the top left extension button, and here you see our sample extension.

So let me select it.

And what I can do is not only apply our filters but I can also resume what was previously edited.

So, for example, I could decide here to bring back the colors and even enhance them.

So I'm going to replace the Sepia filter that was previously applied and I'm going to choose a Chrome filter.

And that's it.

You see how easy it is for the user in just a few taps to use your photo editing extension.

So time to wrap up this session.

What have we learned?

We've introduced the new Photos framework which allows you to access the user's photo library and which allows your application to gain all the features like the one which we provided with the Photos application.

So your app can be a first-class citizen of the iOS Photos ecosystem.

And then we've seen how easy it is for you to provide your Editing tool using the photos editing extensions.

If you want more information you can contact our Evangelist, Allan Schaffer.

You can read our documentation.

And if you want to ask questions or find answers, you can check out our Developer Forums.

We have a couple of related sessions.

Some of them have already taken place.

So check out the videos, like the one about what extensions you can create on iOS and OS X or how you can capture content from the camera using even more control on iOS 8.

And we have two sessions taking place this afternoon if you're interested in knowing more about how to edit images and apply your custom filters using Core Image.

And with that, I thank you very much for your attention.

Enjoy the rest of the show.

[ Applause ]

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