Developing Applications that work with iPhone OS Accessories 

Session 201 WWDC 2010

Accessories can connect to iPod, iPhone, and iPad through the 30-pin dock connector, Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi. Learn about the options for using standard or custom protocols such as location and iPod remote control. Understand best practices for Bluetooth and hear the latest on designing applications that use the External Accessory framework to interact with wired and wireless accessories.

This morning we’re going to talk to you about the many opportunities that iPhone OS provides for connecting applications to accessories.

We’re also going to specifically point out the new opportunities that you have in iOS 4.

There are three ways that accessories can connect to iPhone OS devices.

They can use the 30-pin dock connector, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi.

Your application sits on the iPhone OS, and has access to frameworks and services offered by that OS such as the External Accessory framework and Audio Services.

Accessories then connect through the hardware interfaces, the 30-pin with includes UART and USB, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi.

Over the 30-pin, the iPod Accessory Protocol or iAP is used to communicate with the OS.

iAP can also be used over Bluetooth.

And then of course, over Bluetooth, we also offer standard Bluetooth profiles.

Because Wi-Fi, excuse me, uses TCP/IP and standard network services, we won’t be covering Wi-Fi in detail in this session.

But there is a session on Bonjour that you can attend if you’re interested in that.

I’m going to start by talking about the 30-pin and those hardware interfaces, and then talk about iAP in some detail.

Brian is then going to come up and talk to you more about Bluetooth on iPhone OS devices and the profiles that we support.

And then Paul is going to wrap up at the end and talk in some detail about the External Accessory framework.

I know that we have a lot of application developers in the audience, and I know we also have some accessory developers.

There are some of you overachievers that do both.

We’re going to have the information for all of you today.

We’ll try to be specific about who we’re talking to at which point.

But again, this is information for both accessory developers and application developers.

So, first, the dock connector.

The dock connector has been standard on iPod since 2003.

We sold a lot, a lot of iPods with dock connectors.

It’s also on every iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad.

The available interfaces on that 30-pin are UART and USB as I explained for communication, and actually, on USB, the iPod or the iPhone OS device can be a USB host or a USB device.

We also offer, of course, audio and video hardware interfaces and power.

Accessories can charge the iPhone OS device.

So, they can charge it and give it power to run off of or they can be charged by the iPhone OS device.

So, an accessory that doesn’t have its own power source.

For example, an FM transmitter or some other small dongle like maybe a blood glucose monitor, they can get those accessories can get power from the iPhone OS device.

For those of you who might be new to accessory development and who are interested in accessory development, we do have several reference designs available from some of the MFi partners that can help to get you started.

Now, I’m going to talk a little bit about the iPod Accessory Protocol or iAP.

iAP was put in place to allow accessories to communicate with and control the iPhone OS device.

I’m going to talk about the about iAP at a high level and about some of the features that I think might be interesting for this audience.

But the full details, all hundreds and hundreds of pages of stack of it, are available through the MFi program.

And if you are interested in learning about joining the MFi program, we have a lab session this afternoon, and there’ll be a lot of MFi representatives there who can help you.

So first, I’m going to talk about standard features that you can use to communicate or that accessories can use to communicate with iPhone OS devices that then make data available to your apps.

These are these include: Audio, Video, Location information, and then some new things for iOS 4 including Multimedia remote control, Keyboards, and Accessibility.

Then I’ll talk about the possibility of sending custom protocols over iAP so that an app and an accessory can communicate arbitrary data between themselves.

And we’ll talk more about that at the end.

So first, audio.

Audio is routed to and from your application, to and from your accessory via the most appropriate path by Core Audio.

There are several hardware interfaces available for audio.

They’re listed here.

You can see that there are analog and digital forms for both input and output.

I thought you might be interested in seeing which devices support which audio interfaces.

They’re listed here.

You can see that line out and the headset and USB audio out are supported on all of our platforms.

And the Bluetooth audio was added with the 2nd generation iPod touch and with the iPhone 3G.

Audio input is in a bit of a transition right now.

So, some of our devices supported analog line in.

So all of the iPod touches do and iPhone through the iPhone 3GS.

iPhone 4, however, does not support an analog line in and neither does iPad.

Those two devices support USB audio in and digital audio input path.

And we were able to get that feature back also into 3rd generation iPod touch and the 3GS iPhone.

We’ve had some exciting developments in the video space with iPhone OS 3.2 and iOS 4.

We have the possibility for applications to send video to an external display.

I think this creates a whole lot of opportunities for you.

The applications to find out about attached displays including the bounding rectangle, whether they have been attached and when they’re detached via UI screen.

And really thinking about it, I think there are a lot of things that applications might want to do when attached to a large monitor such as the television, perhaps, to other monitors and cars and airplanes, you name it.

So, here are the hardware interfaces that are supported on iPhone OS devices.

You can see that analog is supported on all the devices including composite, S Video and component, and that we also are able to send video out through our VGA Adapter on iPhone 4 and on iPad.

Now, I’m going to talk a little bit about location.

Accessories can communicate with iPhone OS devices and provide them location information.

So, you can imagine a car or a GPS puck like a Bluetooth puck or a GPS hand-held device that might have nice big GPS antenna, can provide very valuable, very accurate GPS information and heading to an iPhone OS device.

This includes an iPod touch.

So, what that means for you as an app developer is that your app shouldn’t rely on the fact that you’re running on an iPod touch and not use location services.

These accessories are getting more popular.

We’re very excited to see what developers are getting into the market.

And your device very might very may well have an attached accessory that allows it to have location information.

New for iPhone OS 4 is the ability for your app to receive multimedia remote control commands such as play and pause, next and previous.

These commands previously were reserved for only the iPod application, but now, if you have a multimedia app that registers for these commands, you can also receive these commands from standard accessories that are already in the field.

Of course, new accessories as well.

So, again, speaker docks, cars, and a very popular accessory, the headphone remote and mic system that so many people own already, sends these next and previous commands and they can go straight to your app.

So, you can imagine listening to music in your app and having a user just be able to use their headset to press pause and having the music pause in your app.

I think this is a great addition.

And I’m excited to see a lot of apps develop or, sorry, support this API in the near future.

Next are keyboards.

With iPhone OS 4, we expect to see a lot of new keyboards, both 30-pin keyboards and standard Bluetooth keyboards in the market.

For application developers, this doesn’t mean much at the surface.

You’re still going to get keyboard events the same way that you’ve gotten them before.

Now, you’ll get UIKeyInput and UITextInput events.

So, it doesn’t mean that you’ll get a new kind of event, but what it does mean is that accessory developers might be coming up with some great new form factors for keyboards or keyboards that are especially suited for particular applications or particular use cases.

I look forward to you guys using your imaginations on this one and seeing what you can come up with.

I’m excited to talk about accessibility.

We just had some discussion of accessibility in this session right before this one.

Accessories can now leverage VoiceOver technology to communicate with the phone and completely control the iPhone OS device.

They can send commands such as moving to a particular X,Y coordinates or moving to the next or previous UI element.

And they can send those commands remotely, and VoiceOver will perform those actions, and of course, use VoiceOver to provide feedback.

This is exciting because you can imagine an accessory like a joystick or a trackpad that sends these commands remote from the device, and then the device responds appropriately.

Especially coupled with the video output capability of apps, I think that there’s a lot here.

This is revolutionary for our users that can’t see or don’t have the dexterity to manipulate the device.

But I think that there are a lot of opportunities outside of the traditional accessibility space with this feature.

Now, what can you as an app developer do?

You can make sure that your app is accessible.

So, this means using the UIAccessibility API.

For most of you, all that means is you need to fill-in a few missing labels for UI elements that you might have.

This should be a fairly easy task.

And then whatever accessibility accessories come to market, your app will automatically work with them.

Now, we’re going to move on to custom protocols over iAP.

In the iPhone OS 4, we introduced the opportunity for apps and accessories to communicate directly with each other, again, to send arbitrary data between the app and accessory.

New to iPhone OS 4 is the possibility for multiple apps to talk to the same accessory or multiple accessories to talk to the same apps.

We’ve got this request a lot of times, and we’re really excited about it.

We think that there will be a lot of new innovation in this space as you guys mix it up in the app and accessory worlds.

There’s also the possibility under a very limited circumstances for an accessory to launch an application.

You can imagine a specific, you know, blood pressure cuff or something that gets plugged into an iPhone OS device.

And the reason it’s getting plugged in is because the user wants to use it immediately.

So, it’s appropriate for an app to be launched.

And I think that this is very help can be very helpful for the user and eliminates some steps especially for those who have a lot of apps on their device.

Last feature is the capability for an accessory to declare that it doesn’t need an application to function.

So, we don’t pester users by asking them if they would want to go to the app store too many times, if in fact, your accessory works well without an application.

Now, Paul is going to talk in detail about these custom protocols over iAP and what we call the External Accessory framework in iPhone OS that allows these protocols to work.

And he’ll talk about them in a lot more detail in the third section of this session.

So, in summary, we’ve added a lot of features for you to iOS 4 to allow accessories and apps to communicate.

We’re excited in particular about multimedia remote control for multimedia applications.

We’re excited about seeing new form factors of keyboards, 30-pin keyboards, and Bluetooth keyboards that your app can then use.

We’re definitely looking forward to seeing what happens in this accessibility space which I think is wide open right now.

And we have several new features for you in what has proven to be a very popular area of using custom protocols over iAP.

So with that, I’m going well, first, I guess, mention reference some sessions that might be of interest to you guys.

If you were interested in some of the specific technologies that I talked about, first for Wi-Fi, next for accessibility, and then the third one, if you’re interested in learning more about Core Audio.

I’ll now hand over to Brian Tucker who’s going to talk about Bluetooth on iPhone OS.

[ Applause ]

Good job.

So, I’m Brian Tucker, and I’m the Senior Engineering Manager for Bluetooth Technologies on all iOS platforms.

That includes iPod, iPhone, and of course, the iPad.

So, what are we going to get out of this session?

Well, fundamentally, two groups hopefully will benefit from these 20 minutes or so.

First is accessory manufacturers.

Obviously, Bluetooth is really not very interesting if we don’t communicate with the particular accessory.

And then application developers.

So, we have some technologies in the iOS platform that give you the ability to communicate with your accessory directly or with another iPhone.

So, for example, GameKit.

We’re going to talk about some things that you can do to improve, hopefully, your game and the network throughput that you’re getting in your game in these 20 minutes.

So, kind of briefly talked about this, but we’re going to talk a little bit about the OS implementation of Bluetooth, and then I have some tips and tricks relating to a few areas where hopefully it will benefit you as the accessory manufacturer or as an application developer.

And ultimately, I think the big point here is that we as a community have to come together both the accessory manufacturer, application developer, and within our engineering group to create great Bluetooth platforms.

We’re only so good as the product that we’re interacting with or the customers interacting with at a particular time.

So, we need to work together.

So, what are we going to be covering today?

So first off, I’m going to cover what’s new in the iPhone OS 4, specifically, I’ll go through a few of the key things that we’re excited about.

Then I’m going to give you kind of the state of the union of what we have in iOS 4 for now.

And then we’ll go into my tips and tricks.

And I have three things that we’ll be covering specifically with general Bluetooth, with GameKit, and with some coexistence discussions, and we’ll get into that more.

So, what’s new with iOS?

So, Emily mentioned keyboards.

And of course, we’ve added HID keyboards with iPad.

But now with iOS, pretty much with any iOS application, we support Bluetooth keyboards.

And this is using HID, the HID profile.

And pretty much anything you can do with the HID keyboard you can do with an iOS piece of hardware.

So, last year, we introduced A2DP or Advanced Audio Distribution Profile.

And this was the ability for you to stream audio to an accessory, a car or a headset.

Now, when you do A2DP, you have to do a codec called SBC or Subband Coded.

And it’s OK.

But to get a really decent audio quality, it takes about 330 kbps data rate in order to achieve an audio quality that we feel is acceptable for the customer.

So, we thought, well, how do we implement a better implementation that gives a lower throughput usage, better coexistence model, better power consumption footprint, and we’re using AAC for this.

So, with iOS 4.0, we’re now providing an endpoint that does AAC encoding.

And as you can see here, it’s a 44.1 encoding, 128 kbps, and it is VBR, so we can update data rate dynamically, and we will update that data rate dynamically depending upon coexistence.

We’ve also added voice commands over Bluetooth.

Now, we kind of had this in the past with the Bluetooth voice activation command.

But with iOS 4.0, we’re now providing a way for you to press the Home button on your device and start the voice command, and if you’re connected to a device that doesn’t necessarily support voice commands, we’ll go ahead and enable that, and we do some trickery on the phone to enable the voice commanding car kits that wouldn’t necessarily be able to do this.

We’ve added in-band ringtones.

So, that awesome industrial death metal ringtone that you have on your phone, you can now hear in your car probably when your mom’s in the car.

Braille keyboards.

So, what’s interesting about Braille keyboards is they don’t use HID, they’re not a HID device.

Typically, they’re based on the Serial Port Profile or SPP.

And we’ve implemented a Braille implementation on a lot of the real popular, there’s quite a few of them, but a lot of the popular Braille keyboards in the market.

And we’ve added support for multiple handsfree and A2DP devices to be connected simultaneously to the device.

A kind of a cool factor here is that you can have a headset in your ear, you can get into the car, the headset won’t disconnect, the car will connect, and now you can route automatically the audio between the two.

If you want to have a private conversation, you can have it in the car, or you can have it in your ear and you can have it in the car, and you’re still going to have to pick up the phone.

For example, in California I hear that’s illegal.

So, this will allow, you know, I guess the routing, you have to touch the phone, but you don’t bring it up to your ear, so.

iPhone volume control.

So, this is kind of a minor thing, but this is huge for some accessory manufacturers that do not have an industrial design that allows for localized volume control.

So that what this gives you is a slider, just like you would see on any other accessory on the phone itself as well as the physical buttons.

So, it allows you to control the volume of the localized output game being sent to the accessory.

So, if you have like a little desktop speaker, you can now control the volume of that on the phone.

Or headset, some headsets are so small that just physically cannot have a volume control, you can now can do that on the phone.

So, where are we at?

So, here’s the Bluetooth profiles that we have today.

So, Hands-Free Profile, the Phone Book Access Profile, which is how we sync phone books to your device, your car or your Bluetooth device.

The Advanced Audio Distribution Profile, HID or the Human Interface Device, Personal Area Networking, which is what we use for GameKit as well as for tethering, and then the Device ID Profile.

I want to go into a little bit more about DID here in a minute.

And then we have some custom protocols.

Emily touched on iAP.

And what’s cool about iAP is it’s essentially, it’s the entire iPod Accessory Protocol implementation, wireless.

So, all of the advantages you get with iAP in terms of browsing the content of the phone or album art or any of the other events so custom protocols, for example.

We see some implementations where people are adding value to their traditional hands-free device by implementing iAP and doing some really interesting things with the phone or with applications on the phone to interact with their device.

It’s pretty cool.

And up to this point, if we adjusted a basic interface, we wouldn’t be able to provide you with the ability to do things like bring up apps and all those kind of things.

So, that’s iAP over Bluetooth.

Alright. So, now, I’d like to go to three areas where hopefully we can improve Bluetooth together.

So, we’re going to cover some general overall Bluetooth improvements.

We’re going to go through GameKit and some of the things that you can do in GameKit hopefully to improve your network throughput.

And then we’re going to talk about Wi-Fi Coexistence.

And if you don’t know what that is, you will in about 10 minutes.

So, let’s go over overall Bluetooth improvements.

So, first-off, right now we’re at Bluetooth 2.1 plus EDR.

We see a lot of devices that are being no, this is specifically for accessory manufacturers.

But we see a lot of devices that are still being implemented at a 1.1 level or at a 2.0 level, but not implementing extended data rate.

And so for us, to interact with those, because we’re having to coexist with Wi-Fi, and we’re having to coexist with multiple profiles connected simultaneously either to your device or to another device, if you’re not implementing EDR, it doesn’t leave a whole of time for the radio to do anything else other than communicate with your device.

Implement EDR.

Support Secure Simple Pairing.

So, with SSP, the user no longer has to enter a pin code.

This is a huge thing, right?

All they have to do is find your device, click on that device to get a little confirmation that says do you want to pair with that device, they say yes, and now they’re authenticated.

It’s that simple.

They don’t have to go find the manual and figure out what pin code to enter.

It’s also a lot more secure.

It keeps man-in-the-middle attacks from occurring, for example.

And so for car kits especially, a lot of times the car kit implementation is that it’ll generate a pin code, and then the user has to go to the phone and type in the 6-digit pin code.

But with Secure Simple Pairing, you don’t have to do that anymore.

Big, big thing.

Extended Inquiry Response.

So, with 2.1 we get EIR, we get extended responses from accessories.

Now, normally, you just provide us with your Mac address.

But if you put your Friendly Name in the EIR, we no longer have to go back and keep talking to you about what’s your name, what are you capable off, and those kinds of things.

This is a big win for the phone because it doesn’t have to keep talking to your device and to the next device and to the next device.

Implement Friendly Name in EIR.

Device ID Profile.

So, this is a profile that some people do, some people don’t do.

I know that this is kind of a religious debate in the Bluetooth SIG.

But we implement DID, which means that when you connect to the phone, in the SDP inquiry response, we can tell you what you’re connected to.

We’ll tell you the name of the device, we’ll tell you the version, we’ll tell you the hardware version, so that you can add value to your products that’s based on what you’re connected to.

Well, inversely, we like to do the same with your products.

So, if you implement DID in your products, we can say, oh, we’re connected to that new Mercedes 2012 325 or whatever, that’s a BMW.

But any car like that.

And we can now add value with you, and we’re more than willing to work with you, because for example, maybe you’re doing iAP in the background as well.

And if we know what device we’re connected to, we can again together add value to that product.

Implement DID, it’s a good thing.

Role switch.

So, with Bluetooth, there’s a master-slave concept.

And the master is responsible for a lot of things.

It’s responsible for power.

It’s responsible for frequency selection.

It’s responsible for many things in relation to the piconet that’s created between these two devices.

We still run into devices that do not allow role switch.

And this is not a good thing when the phone is trying to connect to, again, multiple profiles and multiple devices as well as coexist with Wi-Fi.

So, embrace slave mode, it’s a great thing, trust me.

Now, if you don’t if you can’t do it, in other words, you’re connected to another phone or whatever, that’s fine, we understand.

But 90 percent of the time, or even more than that, you don’t have to be master, let the phone be master, it’ll be great.

Support sniff.

So, sniff intervals, for those who don’t know, is a way for us to kind of deterministically talk to your device in a very controlled method.

And a lot of times we use sniff for power saving, for example.

Keyboards work in sniff mode.

And they do some things.

Some keyboards do some things where they implement a variable sniff interval where, for example, they may use a relatively short sniff interval when you’re operating with the device.

It’s about 12 millisecond duty cycle.

But then when you’re asleep or when the phone screen goes to sleep, the phone’s going to actually ask you, “Hey by the way, can you go to a longer sniff interval?

Let’s see, 500 milliseconds or even longer than that in some cases?”

That’s a huge win for two reasons: Power, ’cause we don’t want to have to turn the antenna on very often, and coexistence.

So, the less we’re using the Bluetooth side of the radio or antenna, the more time we can give to Wi-Fi.

I think you’re seeing a theme here, right, with coexistence?

And then a little thing but we think is a big win for some of our customers is if somebody reaches for the power button on your keyboard, send us a disconnect before you physically turn off.

There’s a supervision time-out that will kick in after awhile, but if you can turn off right away rather than waiting for a supervision time-out, it’s a big win because you don’t have to sit around waiting to see if your device is going to talk to us.

Again, power savings and coexistence improvements.

So, profiles, just two quick things: A2DP.

I briefly touched on a couple of things here.

But if you can’t do AAC, try to do a higher data rate of SBC.

We see a lot of devices that are still using data rates in the 200 220 kbps data rate, that doesn’t sound good.

And a lot of the negative implications of A2DP or Bluetooth audio has been because people have implemented low data rates in their SBC encoding or decoding.

So, if you say to us, “I only support 180 kbps,” which is like SBC value of like somewhere in the 20s, well, so, the user, they’re going to hear just massive sound compression artifacts, right?

So, shoot for 330.

We find that somewhere in the bitpool value of 53, you’re going to produce an audio quality that really sounds great.

However, if you can implement AAC, we really, really want you to do this.

This is a huge win for us again because we saved throughput, it’s only a 128 kbps.

We saved power because we’re we have a highly, highly optimizing coder that reduces the system usage on the AAC encode period.

And then it also saves in coexistence.

Again that coexistence word.

Oh, and then finally, AVDTP 1.3.

So, when we’re sending audio to your device, we have no idea how long it takes your device to render that frame of audio, right?

So, from the time that audio comes in to your Bluetooth receiver to the point at which it’s decoded, to the point at which it goes to the DDA, to the point at which it goes to the transducer or speaker, we don’t know how long that takes.

So, we have to actually measure multiple devices, and we determine realistically and try to figure out how long we think your device takes to render audio.

And the reason we have to do that is because in most cases, people are playing a game or people are watching video or watching a podcast or whatever they’re doing.

And if we don’t keep those in sync, what happens?

Lip-sync problems, right?

They’re talking and it’s the bad Japanese movie or a bad monster movie.

So, what we have to do is we have to improve latency by doing all these tricks.

Well, actually, in Bluetooth, there’s a way to get for you to give this information back to us.

We really like to see you implement that.

And with HFP, I know I spoke about voice commands as a feature that we support, but we’d really like you to implement the real way of doing it which is BVRA or Bluetooth Voice Recognition Activation Command.

Even if your car has the ability of doing its own voice recognition, totally cool, but if the user wants to use the phone’s voice recognition activation, we like to be able to send the BVRA plus colon 1 command to you to say we want to do voice commands.

And everybody wins, because you now understand the state by which the phone is going into.

And then eSCO, which is again going back to 2.1 in EDR.

OK. So that’s general Bluetooth or overall Bluetooth improvements.

So, let’s get into GameKit.

So, first off, GameKit is it’s an interesting implementation that we did last year.

And a lot of people started by doing this kind of client-server client-server both are running browsing and advertising simultaneously.

By the way, this is really this talk is really focused towards the application developer that’s working on specific applications or uses of GameKit.

So, when you implement a game, and both of them come up, it’s advertising, and they also are coming up in the browse, what happens?

Well, contention happens, right?

Because one device is advertising, another device is advertising, one device is browsing, and the other device is browsing, and there are times when they both browse, and when you’re browsing, you’re not advertising, and guess what?

It takes a long time to find each other.

So, if you can, it’s not always appropriate, but if you can, try to use a client-server model.

In other words, once side says, “Oh, you want to play a game of checkers?”

“Sure.” So, you host a game.

And the other side says let’s browse for game of checkers.

And then you find that game of checkers and you connect with.

It finds it much, much, much faster.

And that’s traditionally how Bluetooth is supposed to work, a client-server model.

So, in relation to that, only browse when you want to find something, right?

So, if you find that game of checkers and you start playing the game of checkers, there’s really no use for you to sit there and look for another game of checkers unless you want to play five games of checkers, which I guess is OK.

But 90 percent of the time, you’re not, right?

Or a large percent of the time you’re not going to want to do that.

And inverse to that, only advertise when you need to advertise.

So that game of checkers, if you only support one simultaneous act of game, as soon as the game starts, stop advertising with Bonjour or with GameKit.

It’s a big win.

Because what’s happening is when you’re advertising or when you’re browsing, in the background, the radios are pinging out, right?

They are either in advertise mode, which means other devices can discover you, which means it has to respond to those inquiries, right.

So, only advertise and browse when you need to advertise and browse.

So, to understand maximization or how to maximize the network or Bluetooth network, I wanted to kind of go in to a brief explanation of how Bluetooth packetizes its data across the network.

You’ll never ever, ever have to deal with this as a game developer.

But understanding the packet model hopefully will help you maximize the throughput or latency reduction of latency of your games.

And the key thing to remember here is that a wireless network is not equal to a wired network.

A wireless network, we have this weird thing called time space, and we can only transmit a certain amount of data in a free airspace domain at a time.

So, it’s not just this dedicated wire that were sitting there plus the data rates tend to be a little bit slower.

So, let’s look at the packet format.

So, on the left-hand side, we have Time to Transmit and on the bottom we have the amount of data that you can send at any particular time.

I’m going to throw the packets up there.

So, there’s a lot of gobbledygook titles up there.

The green are Basic Data Rate packets, the blue are Extended Data Rate packets.

And you can already see the advantage of using EDR over BDR or Basic Data Rate or classic Bluetooth.

So, we’re not going to use BDR, so I’m going to get rid of those packets right away.

So, on the far right-hand side or left-hand side to you, is a 3-DH5 packet, and that can contain about 1,000 bytes a data, it’s a little bit more, and it can send in at about 3.125 milliseconds.

On the left-hand side, we have a 2-DH1 and a 3-DH1, we’ll focus on the 3-DH1, and that can send roughly, I think, it’s about 80 bytes every 625 microseconds.

So, we’re going to get rid of the other ones, and we’re going to just focus on these particular extremes.

And why is this important?

I’ll get to it in a second.

So, let’s look at a particular packet or a 3-DH1 packet and the anatomy of this.

So, this is how a typical packet looks as it’s flowing over the network.

We have the baseband which is about 9 bytes of data, L2CAP takes about 4 bytes of data, BNEP which is our networking layer or Bluetooth’s way of sending IP traffic data over the layer, it’s about 9 bytes.

In this case, IPv4 or the IPv6 can be used as well which will even be more than 13 bytes.

We’re using UDP, so this is a UDP header that we’re using for this particular transmit, and then the CRC, which is about 2 bytes.

So, the overhead of this packet is 45 bytes of information.

Well, why is this important?

Well, a 3-DH1 packet is only 83 bytes, so which means we’re only able to send 38 bytes of information on any one radio cycle, every 625 milliseconds microseconds we’re sending, basically, 38 bytes of the payload that you’re sending to us.

So, there’s some key things that we can learn from this.

If you’re sending high bandwidth data, in other words, if you’re sending a file of if you’re sending a contact to another phone using the GameKit model, try to keep your MTU values or your payload values at about 980 bytes of data, and try to keep your duty cycles at about 5 milliseconds.

It’s really about 3.125.

But if you keep it 5, then we can deal with contention and retries that are going to happen.

So, what happens if you send it faster than that, we end up with fragmentation.

And if you send more MTUs that are larger than this, let’s say you send an MTU of about 1100 bytes, well, what’s going to end up happening is we’re going to be able to send 1021 bytes and 100 bytes.

So, the efficiency of the network becomes extremely low because we’re having to send a large packet, a small packer or a large packet or a small packet and so on.

And inverse to that, if you need to send a lot of packet data really fast and you’re not sending a whole lot of data, it’s about 30 bytes of data, and the duty cycle of this is about 2.5 milliseconds.

Again, it’s really 625 microseconds.

But in relation to the large packet data, you can see that if you keep your packet small and your duty cycles within a cadence that’s appropriate to Bluetooth, you’re really, really improving your efficiency which means your overall latency is going to drop or the round trip is going to drop.

So, a couple other things.

Be a good wireless citizen.

What does that mean?

Only use the bandwidth you need.

Don’t slam the Bluetooth network if you don’t need to be slamming the Bluetooth network.

Again, this is for coexistence.

Only transmit when necessary.

We kind of briefly talked about this.

Performance of the Bluetooth and Wi-Fi are affected.

And what I mean by this is if somebody’s playing your game, you’re directly affecting the performance of everything else that’s going on on the radio.

You have to keep that in mind.

And then avoid multicast, not everybody needs to get the same packet of information if you’re dealing with a multi-device game.

So, that’s working with GameKit.

So, finally, I want to briefly talk about Wi-Fi Coexistence.

So, for those of you that don’t know, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi exist within the same ISM band, and this is more for associate manufacturers and application developers.

We exist between the 2.4 and 2.5 gigahertz band.

Wi-Fi consist of about 22 megahertz or consist of specifically thirteen 22 megahertz channels that start at 2.4 just above 2.4 and move all the way up to channel 11, in some parts of the world, channel 13.

Bluetooth uses seventy-nine 1 megahertz channels that do not overlap.

One thing to keep in mind, Wi-Fi does overlap.

So, one channel 1 and channel 2 overlap.

So, typically, when you are selecting Wi-Fi channels, you see 1 and then the next non-overlapped Wi-Fi channel at 6, and the next overlap Wi-Fi channel is 11.

So in the case of yesterday in the keynote, you guys were using every channel.

It was crazy.

So, let’s look at what Bluetooth looks like maybe visually.

So, this is 79 channels across the entire spectrum.

And one of the things Bluetooth does that tries to avoid interruption or interference is it uses adaptive frequency hopping.

So, it doesn’t transmit on all of these frequency simultaneously, it’s algorithmically choosing the appropriate frequency to transmit on.

So, it would look something like this, where it’s hopping around and picking frequencies depending upon what is open or available to it.

So, now, let’s overlay 1, 6, and11 on top of this.

So, now you can see when Wi-Fi is using a bunch of frequency or spectrum, Bluetooth doesn’t have a whole lot to live in.

So, if we’re hopping in this, you can see we’re really, really under duress.

Our Bluetooth is really trying to make it work for whoever is using it at that particular time, whether it be Hands-Free or GameKit.

So, briefly I wanted to mention how we transmit.

So, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi use the same antenna in our devices.

In all of our iOS devices, this is the case.

We use the same exact antenna.

So, if they both want to transmit and Bluetooth has priority what happens is Wi-Fi can’t transmit, and Bluetooth gets the antenna.

Well, inverse to that, if Wi-Fi wants to transmit and it has higher priority, then Bluetooth can transmit and it has the antenna.

So, we have technology that we’ve developed, and we have worked with our with industry standard to do antenna arbitration so that we smartly select the appropriate side of the radio, if you will, Wi-Fi or Bluetooth, and we try to fit in Bluetooth transmits in line with Wi-Fi transmits so that Wi-Fi doesn’t step on Bluetooth and Bluetooth doesn’t step on Wi-Fi.

But there are some things that you can do to help us make this easier for us in our products.

Guess what?

Implement 2.1.

This is a big win for us.

If you can transmit three times as much data in the same amount of time, then you don’t have to be transmitting as often, right?

Or if you’re transmitting 30 bytes of data every 625 microseconds rather than 10 bytes of data, again, it’s a big win for coexistence, because we don’t have to do it as often, right?

Support sniff.

Sniff is deterministic.

If we have a deterministic interval and transmit, we know how to arbitrate or how to integrate Wi-Fi and BT from a coexistence perspective.

So, sniff is a big win for us.

Optimize packet usage.

Only send, and this goes back to my previous section, only send what you need to send, right?

Support lower bandwidth codecs.

We talked about AAC.

It’s a huge win.

The difference between 330 kbps and a 128 kbps or depending upon what we’re doing, it could even be less than that is just a huge win for coexistence.

So that’s Wi-fi Coexistence.

And ultimately, that’s the three areas that hopefully will help you improve your products both application development as well as Bluetooth accessories to hopefully create a great user experience between the iPhone OS platforms and your software and your accessories.

So, with that, I’m going to hand it over to Paul who’s going to go into External Frameworks.

Thank you.

[ Applause ]

Good morning, everybody.

My name is Paul Holden, working in the iPhone Application Team.

And I’m really excited to be here to talk to you guys about the External Accessory framework.

And particularly, I actually I saw some faces that were here last year when we gave this talk.

So, I’d like to briefly go over the architecture of I’ll call it EA from now on instead of External Accessory, the EA architecture, and quickly go over the API.

OK. And go over some of the things that people have sort of sent bugs in it about and talk to us about in the lab so that we can try and give you guys some hints.

Next, we’d like to go over what’s new in iOS 4 with respect to the External Accessory framework.

So, multitasking, and something that is very, very popular with you guys, a lot of requests that we got were for different types of App Store interactions.

So, we’ll talk about those as well.

So, going over the architecture, you’ve got a physical accessory, and you’ve got your application.

OK. So, here you’re got physical accessory, you’ve got an application, and your application will link against the EA Framework, right?

So that’s the blue box that you see here.

Now, when you connect your physical accessory to the iPhone, you’ll get your accessory will enumerate the protocols that it supports.

Now, this is what Emily was talking about, about the custom protocols where we don’t really get in the way, we just give you guys channels to send input and output to and from your accessory, right?

And what happens is all of these your for example here we’ve got three, you name them, you’re in control of them, and your application is free to use any of them that it wants.

So, once that happens, once your accessory enumerates, and with the protocols that it supports.

In your application, you’ll get a notification.

And part of that notification will be an object that will represent the physical accessory, OK.

So, if you’ve got three accessories that are currently connected, you’ll get three of these kinds of blue boxes that will show up in your application, and they’ll each list all the protocols that are supported by your accessory.

Next, when you want to actually send data, we’ve got the gray boxes around here, the protocol.

So, for example, here we’ve got the two, you’ll open what we call EASessions with these protocols, and then you’ll be able to send input and output to and from your accessory, OK.

So that’s the architecture really quickly.

So next, let’s talk about the API.

So, very basic small API here.

We can fit it all in just a few lines.

So, we’ve got three classes: EAAccessoryManager, EAAccessory, which also has a delegate, and EASession.

So, let’s start with EAAccessoryManager.

So, when you guys look at this header file, you’ll see two notifications that pretty much every single of your applications that’ll use additional accessory framework will have to use, so the DidDisconnect and the DidConnectNotification.

So when you receive these, you’ll get them whenever a physical accessory connects to your device and enumerates the protocols that it supports, OK.

And anyone who’s familiar with Foundation notifications will see that there’s a user info dictionary, and in the user info dictionary will be that object that represents your accessory, the EAAccessory object which we’ll get to the next slide.

So, it is a singleton, so you use the sharedAccessoryManager to get to it.

And next, like you’ve seen in a lot of the other frameworks, we asked you to register and unregister for notifications.

That helps us do a little bit of authorization.

And then next, when you connect when you actually startup your application, we won’t send you a DidConnectNotification for every single accessory that’s already connected.

What you’ll get instead is you’ll come up and you’ll register for notifications and you’ll call the connectedAccessories protocol, and what that’ll do, well, that’ll give you the list of accessories that are already connected to your iPhone.

So next, the object that pretty much everyone use here.

When you get the DidConnectNotification or when you call the property connectedAccessories, in there you’ll see these EAAccessory objects.

So, if this is the one if this is the accessory that you care about so, you’ll check it to see if it supports the protocolString.

So here, we’ve got three important protocols, the connectionID, the protocolString and the delegate.

So, if it is an accessory that you care about, you’ll go ahead and you’ll retain and you’ll use it.

And then you’ll probably use these three properties.

So now, there’s a lot of them in there such as name, manufacturer, serial number, model number, all sorts of stuff.

But generally, you’ll use connectionID for you to know that this actually is a unique ID given to that accessory for that connection.

So, let’s say you have a certain accessory that connects, disconnects and reconnects, although the accessory will look the same, the connectionID will be different.

And then the protocolStrings is just an array of all those custom protocols that it supports.

And generally, we ask people to name them in reverse DNS notations.

So you’ll get them here, it’s just a list of strings.

And finally, the delegate.

So, what’s the delegate used for?

Two slides ago, we talked about the DidDisconnectNotification.

OK, what’s great about the DidDisconnectNotification is that you get it anytime an accessory disconnects.

The bad thing about that notification is that you get it every time an accessory disconnects.

So, if you only care about one particular one that you’ve retained, then you can go ahead and set the delegate on that EA object, on that EAAccessory object and you’ll get this called only when that accessory disconnects.

So, hope you guys have all that.

Next, where you’ll spend most of your time is with the EASession, OK.

So, EASessions are what we’ll use when we actually want to talk to a protocol when we talk over a protocol for a given accessory.

So, the application developer, you guys, will create it, right?

So, use initWithAccessory forProtocol.

So, you create one session forProtocol for one accessory.

Next, how are you going to talk to your accessory?

Well you’ll use these two properties.

You’ll use the inputStream and the outputStream.

So, these are NSInputStream and NSOutputStream classes which are both subclasses of NSStream.

We’ll talk about those in a little bit.

But basically, these are the main objects that you’ll use to communicate.

Finally, you have one EASession per EA Protocol per EAAccessory.

That’s kind of a mouthful, but even with multitasking, this is still the case.

So for example, if you the application developer, hold the session to a certain protocol for a certain accessory, even if you go in the background, even if you suspend, you will still own that protocol, right?

So, no other application can come in and just start talking to it until you release it.

So, we talked about communicating using NSInputStream and NSOutputStream.

So, I’m bringing this up again because this was definitely one of the most difficult points that when people had a lot of question or people had issues with their writing their applications and trying to use the External Accessory framework, a lot of them came to using this class.

So, it’s a subclass of NSStream.

And I would say at least 80 percent of the questions were somehow in this document.

So, the “Introduction to Stream Programming Guide for Cocoa,” I encourage anyone who plans to use this framework to go read that, very, very useful.

It describes it in a lot of detail, gives a lot of examples.

And if I were to describe it very, very quickly, what I would do is I would tell people that this is it’s delegate-based, and basically, whether you have the inputStream or the outputStream, both are subclasses of NSStream, and that NSStream basically just uses one subclass to communicate, and that’s theStream handleEvent.

And the types of events that you’ll get are stream open, stream close, stream had an error, stream ended, stream has data available, and stream has space available for you to put data in it, right.

So you can’t just assume that when you open a stream that there’s enough space for you to put, you know, 25 megabytes in there, right.

You send data, and it’ll come back and it’ll tell you how much room is in it, how much you can how much data you can put in it.

And then when the data is consumed, you’ll get a notification and then you’re free to put more data in there, right.

So definitely, check that out.

It’ll be really, really useful.

So, what’s new?

We talked about the API and how they’ve kind of stay the same.

But generally, multitasking has had a few made a few changes with respect to your accessory.

So, one is there are no EA events in the background.

So, how do we accomplish this?

When your application gets the UIApplicationDidEnterBackgroundNotification, we read that too.

So, the External Accessory framework will read that and what it’ll do is it sends a disconnect for every single accessory that’s currently connected to your system.

So you’d get this when you go into the background.

Then when you come in to the foreground, you’ll get a DidConnectNotification for everything that’s connected when you come into the foreground.

Now, why that’s important is because this will allow your programs to work seamlessly with iOS 4.0.

So, even though let’s say someone disconnects and reconnects an accessory a hundred times and when you come back up or possibly if when you come back up out of suspension or out of the background, that accessory is no longer there, you won’t even notice it.

It’ll look just as if that accessory disconnected, OK.

So, this will allow people to seamlessly have their application work between 3 and 4 with one exception of course.

So, if you don’t release your session, other clients aren’t free to use it.

So, it’s very, very important that if you don’t intend on keeping a session around, that when you’re done with it, you close it or when the accessory disconnects, that you close it.

Now, in 3.0, this wasn’t for the iPhone OS 3.0, this wasn’t as important, right.

Because when your when the use press the Home button, your application went down and we did all the clean up everything, right.

So, a lot of people we’re looking at most applications today.

Most people did this.

So, most of them will just get all this behavior for free.

But not it’s but if you didn’t, it’s very important that you go ahead and clean up.

So this so this is taken right out of that programming guide, the Stream Programming Guide for Cocoa that I brought earlier.

So, for every session, you want to close them, remove them from the runLoop and set the delegate the nil.

And then finally, the last line here, just release your session.

So finally this, App Store Interactions, very, very excited to be able to bring this to you guys.

This was definitely one of the most requested features that we had here.

So, if I were to describe how we did this before, when you connected an accessory to your iPhone, if there was if for every protocol that you supported, there was not a single application that handled anyone of those protocols.

You got the alert that you see here.

So, application unsold, you want to go to the App Store and then sell it, and also in the Settings application, you got to find app for accessory, alright.

So this worked for 90 percent of the people out there, but we’ve got a lot of request for us to expand this and give them different kinds of options.

So, before I go into those, I’d like to just talk about how you get an application to be associated with your with the protocols that it supports.

So, we have a key UISupportedExternalAccessoryProtocols.

It goes in your Info.plist.

You list all the protocols that your accessory supports, and then from there, if there is a iPhone OS 3.0, if there is a protocol that’s supported by a single application, the alert disappears.

But you still see the find application for accessory here.

So, App Store Interactions.

This is the mode, we’ve got pictures later, so don’t read this.

But basically, we’ve got a bunch of new interactions that’ll help you work with that alert and help you work with the App Store a lot easier.

What’s important to mention is that we now add properties to these protocols and this happens on the iAP layer.

OK. It doesn’t happen in the people who are writing applications essentially have no control over this, right.

When you’re writing your accessory, when you are enumerating your protocols over iAP, you’ll go ahead and you’ll add the you’ll add a few properties that’ll give us hints about you want to do with respect to App Store Interactions.

So, all of these happen over iAP.

So, the first one is the one that we had in 3.0.

So, Show Alert if no EA Protocol is supported.

So let’s say, your accessory supports three protocols.

Not a single one of them is supported by any app on the phone, then you’ll get the alert.

Next, we have a property oh, also to mention where I go back here, if you don’t add any properties, you’ll get the default behavior from the 3.0.

So nothing you’ll see your applications going forward, they’ll work.

If you don’t add anything, they’ll work just as they did in 3.0.

So, going forward, you can also add a property that says, I want you to show the Alert if EA Protocol x is not supported.

So, let’s say you have an accessory that has three protocols and two of them aren’t very important, they might also be supported by adaptation, but you have one that’s really, really, really important and you always want to show this alert if that particular one doesn’t have an accessory that has that protocol in it’s Info.plist.

So you can add this property to it, the Show Alert if EA Protocol x is not supported and that’ll always come up until that particular protocol is supported.

Next, No Alert.

So you can just tell us for this particular protocol, I don’t want an alert.

That’s fine, we won’t show it.

Next, if you want to be in total stealth mode, you can just say No Action.

And if you add that property to the protocol over iAP, we will not show anything that has to do with the App Store.

So that concludes the External Accessory framework portion of it.

If you have any more questions, definitely talk to the Evangelist.

If they don’t know the answer or who to get you the answer from, there probably is no answer.

And then check out Developer Program Documentation and the Apple Forums.

Next, we also have a associated with this session, we have a test application, and I definitely encourage everyone to go through and see it.

It’s very, very general.

It basically lets you form connections and send data to any accessory that’s out there.

So, everyone can take advantage of the application that’s bundled with this presentation.

So, definitely go look at it.

In particular, there’s an EAD so the program is called EA Demo, so the prefix EAD.

EAD session controller .h and .m. Those are like plagiarized full proof.

We want everyone to go through, read them and possibly just copy them as-is into your application.

They kind of abstract a little bit the NSStream stuff so that you guys can go through and use that, alright?

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