What’s New in SpriteKit 

Session 606 WWDC 2014

SpriteKit provides everything you need for high-performance 2D games to animate sprites, simulate physics, and create stunning graphics effects. Check out new APIs for enhanced shading and lighting, advances in physics and collisions, constraints and inverse kinematics, integration with SceneKit, and powerful editing tools built right into Xcode 6.

Hello. My name is Norman.

I’d like to give you a quick tour on some of the details in what’s new in SpriteKit.

So last year we had announced SpriteKit at a conference, a high performance 2D game engine with built-in physics support.

We also built tools right inside of Xcode to help developers improve their game content iteration time like the particle editor and the automatic [inaudible] generator.

And this year we made SpriteKit even better.

We have awesome graphics technologies like shaders, lightings and shadows that help you really bring out the liveliness of your game.

We also have good simulation technologies like per-pixel physics occlusion, physics field, universal kinematics and constraints.

They really allow you to build rich user interactions.

So that’s not all.

In Xcode 6’s release we now have a SpriteKit editor built into the IDE that allow you to create game scenes without writing any code.

And you can use the very same editor to interact with any of the new and existing SpriteKit features.

So how cool is that?

So, for the agenda for this session we’re going to start looking at how to use custom shaders to customize the drawing behaviors of your sprite, how to add lightings and shadows to your scene and we really have a lot of new physics updates I’d like to give you an update on.

And the integration with SceneKit really brings new possibilities of writing to these games.

It also blurs the lines between the actual 2D game and 3D game implementations.

And lastly, I’m going to give you a quick tour and demo of the new SpriteKit editor and some other improvements in already existing APIs.

So the first thing I want to talk about is shaders.

SpriteKit does a fantastic job of extracting the lower-level, platform-dependent graphics APIs away from our users.

But from time to time there’s always a very special effect they want to achieve, say a custom blur or a heat signature when you turn on thermal vision, the post-effect, or when you build a space game where the spaceship’s hit, taking damage, you want to have a custom warping effect just on, like, the sprite.

The shaders become a more relevant solution in this case and for this release we do give you the ability.

So here we have a SpriteKit shader demo.

We’re actually just rendering a single sprite without any textures but the sprite itself is running on custom shaders.

So the shader does a lot of things here.

Its’ rendering all the stars in the background; it’s also drawing the grid; also provides the warping effect of the grid; and also when the touch the user touches any of the screen areas it’s going to provide an energy effect.

So all of these are done in shaders.

So to do this we’re also passing the actual touch locations down to the shaders as uniform.

So in a shader, shader knows, “Okay, the user just touched this area.

Now let’s render the warping here and render the energy effect associated with it.”

So let’s have a look at what the overview of a shader looks like.

So shader helps you really customize the way that sprites are drawn.

You have 100 percent control of how every single pixel is going to be output on the screen.

The shader syntax uses very a C-like GLSL syntax, a very powerful tool to have any of the powerful effects, like image processing or, to all the way to fast motion blurs that’s being used in 3D games.

And whether you are new to SpriteKit or existing SpriteKit users, you can drop this custom shader in with just a single line of code.

So to use custom shaders we create a brand new object called SKShaders object.

It is essentially a container that holds the GLSL, the OpenGL ES fragment shader.

So we’re following the GLSL OpenGL ES 2.0 standard and once you write a shader it can be deployed to both OS X and iOS.

So here is a list of the nodes that’s being supported in SpriteKit.

So SKSpriteNode supports custom shaders and SKShapeNode now supports custom shaders on both drawings, the stroking and filling.

And SKEmmiterNode.

So with the particle effect you have a custom shader running on every single emitter particles in the Scene.

And lastly the EffectNode and SKScene now support custom shaders.

So that gives you the powerful ability to not only use the CI filters to have a full-screen effect, but also you can have a shader to have any possible effect that you want to implement.

So, as soon as the shader is getting uploaded to the sprite and it’s being run at the pixel level, we’re also passing a lot of building attributes to the shader.

So we don’t have to set up a brand-new attribute or uniforms and pass it in.

So, for example, here we’re passing the u-texture that gives it to you as what texture is being used for the current sprite as well as, as well as the texture coordinate and the size of the sprite that’s in pixel size.

So how does shader work in SpriteKit?

Once you know about the SKShader class now it has two possible attributes that you can start on.

The first one is the shader source.

You can create a shader from two possibilities by attaching the source.

One is creating the shader from a file and also you can set the shader from a string.

And the shader itself also has an array of uniforms.

These are optional, but if your shader actually requires any of the external parameters that’re being set in your game, you can use that SK uniforms on the uniforms property.

So now once we have these two properties set, the shader is loaded and is ready to go.

And we have a scene here, for example, a scene has three separate sprites.

You can assign a shader directly to the scene.

You can assign the shader to any of the sprites and then they picked up the effect right away in the next, in the next frame.

So creating a shader will have the new API called SKShader.

It can create with a file.

SKShader WithFileNamed with passing like “blur.fsh”.

The shader will look like any G, OpenGL fragment program that has a main function and in the return values and the gl-FragColor.

And if the shader needs any of the custom uniforms you can just set a uniforms array here with creating SKUinform uniformWithName.

You give it a name here.

We call it u-red, that’s a floating type and the next one we’re setting a u texture, or passing in a secondary texture to the custom shader.

So the supported types are float, texture, back to 2, 3 and 4 and matrix 2×2, 3×3 and 4×4.

And for the full list of the custom symbols that we’re passing into the shader, as soon as your shader is getting run, here is the full list.

So in terms of uniform, you get direct access to the texture of the sprite, the sprite size in pixels, the global time (in case you need to do any of the animation in terms of color or shapes) and you also have access, if you have a custom shader that’s running on a shape, to the shape path length.

In terms of varying we’re passing the texture coordinate, the color mix, as well as the distance of the path and we also have a very convenient method in the shader, so you can call directly, called SKDefaultShading.

This is as if you were to let SpriteKit render the current sprite and give me the pixel value of the current behavior.

So the shaders are cool.

There’s some best practices I’d like to call out.

So number one, I’d like to recommend using built-in uniforms as much as possible.

So we do passing a lot of uniforms for you to use.

That gives you a lot of raw attributes of what we’re doing at the OpenGL level.

But if you do need to access all the same uniforms, please use the building one to minimize the amount of redundancy.

And also we would recommend to avoid changing this shader source in the middle of a frame because that will force a shader recompilation happening at the backend.

And also when the shader is being loaded and we recommend to loadset all the uniforms upfront and you can change uniforms that reframe, but that’s nice and fast.

But adding or removing uniforms will also cause another shader recompilation.

Also in terms of draw call performance we like to share the same shader instance as much as possible because the same shader running on multiple drawing instances gets to batch together.

And we’ll recommend to initialize the shader at load time and initialize the shader using a filename rather than initialize shader using string because if the shaders multiple shaders are sharing the same shader source then SpriteKit will pick it up as identical shaders or drawbacks draw call batching performance remain high.

So the summary of using custom shaders: it allows you to completely customize the way sprites are being rendered on the screen.

You have raw access to a lot of building attributes that we’re passing down to the shader.

And it can create an infinite number of cool and unique effects for your game.

Next I want to talk about lightings and shadows.

So lightings and shadows really bring out the liveliness of your games.

Say, if I’m building a dungeons game, and walking in a long corridor…

All of a sudden the area gets dark, and all of a sudden I see a very dim, shaky light at the end of the hallway…

that kind of brings out that really scary atmosphere and mood for the player.

So to create a light in SpriteKit we introduce a new type called SKLightNode.

You can add it to the scene and position it to anywhere you want and it can light any of the sprites that’re being participated in the current light.

You can change the color, shadow and falloff of the light and will support up to 8 lights, like, for a single sprite.

And the bottom line is SKLightNode is just another SKNode.

You can move it around, turn it to another sprite if you want the light to follow one of your sprites.

You can run actions on it, have it run follow path.

It’s really cool.

So now let’s look at some of the basic add properties for SKLightNode.

So here we have a scene.

It’s very bland.

We add a light source in the scene.

Now if we can change to the lightColor, we decide the lightColor to be yellow, it adds a yellow tint to the light color.

And now if we set a shadowColor to be gray…

and now the boxes start casting shadows…

and lastly if we want to see a little bit more out of the scene we set the ambientColor to really bring the scene up a little bit more.

So let’s look at the additional attributes for SKLightNode.

The number one is falloff.

Falloff controls the radius of the light in terms of the effect and we also take what works really well with our physics properties with the category of BitMasks.

So with SpriteNode now you have individual, big control of whether the sprite is participating in the lighting, whether it’s casting shadows or whether it’s receiving shadows.

You have fine control of exactly how you want to control these 3 attributes for each individual sprite.

And now since we are talking about SpriteNode, SpriteNode also has a brand new property called normalTexture, which you can assign normalTexture with.

So usually normalTexture is heavily used in 3D games and normalTexture uses the pixel RGB value to describe where the normal vector for the surface is pointing towards, so the lighting calculation can be used upon with the normal vectors.

So here we’re using the exact same formula.

So to render the scene with a normal map we use the traditional A + B = C formula, which means you supply the texture you supply the normalTexture SpriteKit will do its magic and give you the result, which is lighting up the scene with the bumpy service that’s being mapped.

So here you as you can see I can just set normalTexture directly on the SKSpriteNode by loading it from the normal .png file.

So now being SpriteKit we like to make our user’s life as easy as possible.

So in addition to the A + B = C formula we get you directly from A to C.

You do not need to supply any NormalMap.

So, what we do is we take the source texture image and perform image analyzation on every single pixel, and based on the bightness of each pixel, we have a multi-path algorithm that generate the best normal map that describes the current picture.

So if you give us a picture that you take from the beach, which is a bunch of rocks, and their rounded edges are really sharp yet the surface remains very smooth…

So here it’s very easy.

It’s magic one liner.

All we need to do is just sprite.normalTexture = generate a NormalMap from the existing sprite’s texture.

[ Applause ]

That’s not all.

There is not a solution, or a one-size-fits-all solution.

So, in addition we provide two more parameters for you guys to change the dynamic behavior of the GeneratingNormalMap in terms of smoothness, in terms of contrast (which is how bumpy you want the main surface to be).

And this will give in combination will give you an infinite number of looks.

For example, our cobblestone I just have two for loops running on these parameters with 1 second delay.

As you can see it actually changed the look.

You can get an infinite number of looks out of it.

And the best part about automatic NormalMap generation is you can do this on dynamic content.

If the user takes a picture from outside and decides to put that in the game, guess what?

You can light it without any normal texture.

We can do all of this for you.

So to summarize lighting and shadows, they are very easy to use.

SKLightNode is just like any SKNode.

You can run animation on it.

You can parent it.

You can set up colors and everything is a one-liner.

Automatic normal map generation really provides this dynamic look for you.

You don’t have to spend time sitting down with artists and trying to figure out how to hand-paint a normal map.

“Oh, it’s purple facing outward or green facing to the left.”

You don’t have to do any of that.

We take out the nitty-gritty detail for you.

There’s some best practices in terms of performance I’d like to point out.

It’s okay to have multiple lights in the scene and it runs reasonably fast.

But if you have the number of lights that’s lighting the very same sprite actually matters.

And if I have more than two lights lighting the same sprite you might not be able to stay on constant 60 on certain iOS hardwares.

It’s just something to point out.

Next I’d like to point out all the new physics features that we have.

So let’s look at them.

Number 1, per-pixel physics updates: we have constraints, allows to remove the boilerplate code in your updates.

We also have inverse kinematics: allow to you build mechanical AI.

We also have physics fields that apply these forces, allow you to build the next space game simulation.

So let’s look at the per-pixel physics body creation.

With the current implementation on the left side, if I want to build a gears game, I can’t.

The best thing I can do is use bounding circles and create the bounding circles around these box, uh, these gears.

They don’t actually grind each other and the teeth don’t interlock.

Okay, maybe I can fake it a little bit.

I reduce the radius of the physics bodies so that the teeth might overlap, but they still don’t touch exactly.

And also, the angular velocity don’t transfer from one gear to another.

But now with a single line of code you can generate from go from there to give you a physics, uh, a pixel-based physics body.

It’s very easy.

[ Applause ]

So when we introspect the source image, based on the alpha mask we generate a rough shape and based on the shape we generate an exact shape that’s the minimal in order to fit the current sprite.

It’s very accurate.

And now, to build the gears demo, you can just have a couple one-liners, have the same code in there, just change from using bounding circles to using image-based physics body and you are good to go.

And they can be pinned, they can be transferring and interlocking; it’s really fun.

So, let’s look at how we do it.

So, with the current API to create a physics body with a bounding box we use physicsBody and bodyWithRectangleOfSize will give you an exact bounding box of the dimensions that you have specified.

Now, with a new API it’s the same initializer.


Instead you’re just passing the texture and the size of the texture.

For example, a hammer here will give you the exact hammer body that’s traced with the outline.

You no longer have to do that yourself or try to build any approximation of the physics bodies.

Just like the automatic and NormalMap generation there’s not a one solution fits all.

If you have a source art that has a lot of semi-transparent pixels we do allow you to specify the alpha threshold, which defines which pixels are being interpolated during the process as opaque or not.

So in summary, per-pixel physics body is very easy to create.

They’re very accurate.

And whether you are existing SpriteKit users or new to the APIs it’s just a matter of setting one line change in your codes to create really accurate physics simulations.

So again I’d like to point out the performance tips.

SpriteKit does a really good job of optimizing this algorithm and we provide a good balance between performance and accuracy, but the texture size matters.

So if you are passing in a 2K by 2K texture and scale it down to 10 percent by rendering a 20 by, 200 by 200 sprite we do have to work down the whole 2K by 2K pixels in order to figure out the exact shape, so just something to think about.

Next: a brand new API, the constraints to help you really simplify the game update logic.

The constraints, the motivation of creating constraint for us is to really remove the boilerplate code in your updates.

So, a lot of times if I want to move a character but I want a health indicator to follow the character that’s exactly 5 pixels above, 2 pixels behind…

I need to put that in the update somewhere.

I need to have a cannon; you want to orient the cannon to follow the airplane.

Guess what, I need to add that code in to calculate the angle and figure out the delta, translate the delta rotation inside the translation.

Or if the airplane wants to land on the runway, I need to orient that first.

We do all of that work for you; we can do it with simple constraints.

So now we add, because of the constraint that’s being added, we need to add some new features in our update loop.

So in the update loop, we expand it to some new selectors.

Number 1, right after physics simulation now the scene starts kicking in the constraint.

So constraints are not limited to physics anymore, so you don’t have to worry about “Oh, is the character standing on a conveyor belt?

Is it going to be pushed over because the box is right beside it?”

Constraints will take care of that for you.

And right after constraint update, users have another chance of doing another update.

We do give the user a callback on didApplyConstraints so here you have a chance to do any other last minute cleanup.

And the basis of constraints, again we’ll have a new object called SKConstraint object.

It is used to wrap around this mathematical constraint on the properties of the node that you want to animate.

So the constraints are then attached to nodes via the new constraints array.

And the scene will apply the constraints to the attached node.

So what kind of constraints can it set on a node?

You can set the constraints on position, orientation and distance and you can quickly enable and disable between frames.

So for example, let’s look at a quick example of how the orientToNode constraint works.

So we just call SKConstraint with orientToNode initializer and follow a node.

So here the arrow’s just following the circle and then we’re just passing the circle.

[inaudible] the SKNode and the range of offset is 0 and you can set, I want to lead the circle following in or lagging it, you have that possibility.

So once the constraint is created I just directly set on the arrow’s constraints property.

Next, how do we set position of constraint?

So here we create a positional range of minus 100 to 100.

We can first set the limit of constraint on the X axis.

This will limit the movement in the X direction of the node.

Now we can also set it on the Y direction, that will give a limitation on the Y axis.

And if you combine these two together you are limiting the movement of the current node to a 200 by 200 box; very, very simple to use.

You no longer have to write all this update code that will manually snap the object back in the box.

So in summary, it really helps you remove a lot of the boilerplate code, making sure you just write the code that’s focused on building the game you want rather than having to fix up things.

And also the because the constraints is the array that you can add the multiple constraints into the same array and the order of evaluation happens from is based on the order of the insertion into the array.

And we also offer a lot of varieties of constraint into position orientation and distance.

Next, I’d like to talk about inverse kinematics.

This is usually a very strange word for people who doesn’t have a mechanical engineering degree or people who haven’t written an animation engine.

So inverse kinematics allow you to use kinematics equations to solve the joint parameters if you have a joint hierarchy trying to reach for things in a 2D space.

So here I’m trying to use the robot arm reaching for where my mouse cursor is pointing and I want to set up the exact behavior of how the robot will move.

I imagine to do that you will update yourself and try to do this every frame.

Okay, it’s easy to move the hand and now, what does the lower hand is going to do?

Followed by what the upper hand is going to do to provide that realistic behavior.

So you can do this for arms and you can do this for legs.

You can do it with blend with animation.

So number 1 of using inverse kinematics is you need to have a joint hierarchy.

So for example, if you look at the robot arm it’s a joint of three pieces.

We start with the upper arm (that’s the root node) followed by the lower arm (which is attached as a child to the upper arm) and then we’ll have the claw (which is attached as a child to the lower arm).

So now each of these joints to create a realistic look I need to set up some constraint.

For example, my arm, my elbow probably opens at 180 degrees and closes at 30 and anything beyond that range is going to snap.

I can’t take it anymore.

So you can set up that constraint for each individual node to create that really realistic behavior.

So with SpriteKit how do you do inverse kinematics?

How do I set up the constraint?

How do I set up the parent-child hierarchy?

You don’t have to do that, because we use the existing scene graph that already have the parent-child relationship and we are good to go.

The only thing you need to set up is setting up the constraints on how each joints open and close to create the realistic look that you want and would provide actions to drive these constraints of the chain.

So the joint rotates around its anchor point.

So by default the anchor point is at 0.5 and 0.5 and that’s not really realistic for my shoulder.

Probably set it to 0.5 – or, 0 and 0.5.

So the constraint that we set is called SKReachConstraint object.

It simply have to two properties; the lower angle limit and upper angle limit.

Once you have these angles specified you can attach that to any of the SKNode that’s in the scene.

And now you have a perfectly working joint hierarchy.

How do I drive it?

To drive it, we provide SKActions.

We have two variants, reachToNode and reachToPosition.

So, if you want to reach to a moving target or any stationary position within the scene you can use either of the variants that’s being specified.

So, here I have a quick example of one-liner writing, running the SKAction of reaching a constraint.

So here we have a simple 4 3 joint constraint.

I use constraint.

Each joint will have a constraint of opening from 0 to 180 degrees.

As you can see when the mouse moves it actually obeys the constraint and tries not to overbend and, but it really give you that realistic look of mechanical bell mechanical AI.

And now we also take the same inverse kinematics solver to 3D.

It’s much, much more interesting but it’s also very closely implemented just like this SpriteKit API.

So you have SK SCNIKConstraint and each node has a SKConstraints array that you set these constraints on.

Also you have animation influenceFactor.

So here, I’ll just give you a quick demo.

You have a 3D scene with a 3D character playing a punch animation, nothing, nothing else is running.

But now with IK running I can blend it on top of the animation playback at 60 frames per second, making sure the hand is always punching at a red target.

So now imagine the possibility of I’m building a tennis game.

All I now need is two animations.

One is the back paddle and forward paddle, everything else I will let IK take care of it so I don’t have to build an infinite number of animation combinations for the game to also have the realistic look.

So this really opened up a lot of opportunities.

So, in summary, inverse kinematics is really easy to use.

You don’t even need to set it up.

The scene graph will take care of it.

And the constraints can be set on every single joint that you have.

You can control the opening and closing angle and to drive these chains you just run a single action one-liner and tell the joint to reach out for a position or a node.

Next, I want to talk about physics fields.

Now physics fields are a type of field forces that apply the generated forces to the object that’s being part of the scene.

So here, I’m having a space cannon launching off cannonballs that interact with 2 different radial gravity fields.

As you can see, as the cannonballs get closer to the planet the linear acceleration gets converted into angular velocity and start orbiting the planet or shoots out.

So, we use the fields to simulate any physical field forces and fields can interact with the physics bodies that’s in the region.

And the region is the place where we define the field effect areas.

And we have a lot of different fields that’s provided with this release.

There’s about 10 of them.

So, when those fields get updated…

So number 1, I need to have field nodes in the scene graph.

They are just like any SKNode.

You can add them to a scene.

You can run action on them as well.

You can parent it to another sprite so if you want to have a really big cookie planet you can add a radial gravity field as a child and move that cookie planet around and then the field is going to follow it.

And if there are physics bodies that’s located within this region and the bitMask matches the interaction will start happening.

Now, the control fields, fields will provide a lot of parameters that will allow you to get the exact look and different interactions that you want.

You can control number 1, region.

That’s the area of effect of how big of the area I want the field to interact with the user with.

Now, the strength in combination of falloff controls what’s the magnitude of force that’s being applied to each individual object that’s in the field.

And minimal radius is just a clamp radius and bitMask can be used to differentiate which physics body you want to interact with this field or not.

Now, let’s look at the regions.

The SKRegions define the area of effect for this particular field.

The region defines this area in 2D space.

By default it is infinite and you can create a rectangle, circle or even create a region from CGPath.

You can do a lot of complicated operations on them like invert, subtract, union and intersect.

So for example, here, I’m if building Earth here and the radial gravity around the Earth, as you can see, is pulling everything towards the center.

So, in addition to physics bodies fields can also interact with SpriteKit particle effects.

So, as long as you set the fieldBitMask on the particle effects, every single emitted object particles can interact with the field.

So, here we have a noise field that apply a coherent noise force to each of the emitted particles.

Now, let’s look at some of the basic fields that’s being provided so everyone can get a feeling of what fields are really looking like.

So, by default we provide the base, linear gravity field.

This is just to simulate Earth’s gravity in one dimension and you can change the direction at any time or if you go up it will attract the object at the correct location.

And second, if I want to simulate a space game, have a planetarium gravity effect, we have the radial gravity field node that you can use.

For example, here the object carries a linear velocity, but when it reaches close to the orbit the linear gravity’s converting into angular velocity so the object actually orients around the planet.

We also have a spring field.

This is the imaginary field as it’s imagining every single object in the scene in the field actually have a spring hooked from one end and attached to the node.

So, here you can see they’re being oscillated back and forth.

And we also have noise fields that apply a coherent noise force to every single object that’s being participated in the scene.

And electric fields are particularly cool.

So, imagine each of the objects have charges, positive charges and negative charges and here we have an electric field that carries positive charges.

And positive charge attracts objects with negative charges and repel objects with the same charge.

So, here the red particles, or red cannons actually, that…

when they carry a positive charge they get repelled away.

And the green ones carry a negative charge and are being attracted and interact with the electric field.

So, fields we provide physics fields as building blocks as like Legos.

Feel free to interact with them and build, combine them together.

So, you can combine them together to have big building blocks and each of the fields can interact with different fields.

So for example, if I want to implement one variation of the Lorenz attractor I can simply have 4 magnetic fields sitting right by each other with opposite charge.

And, what happens if I send particles through the field?

So, that’s what it looks like so which is very cool.

[ Applause ]

So, in summary the fields are very fast, they’re very efficient.

We have a brand new implementation for and we actually have a lot of spent a lot of optimization effort on this feature.

And you can use fields to interact with either physics bodies or particles to have that really fun interaction experience for the user.

And you can also use fields to interact with other fields to have a combined effect.

Next, I want to talk about integration with SceneKit.

We worked really closely together with the SceneKit team to make sure we have the best possible experience for bringing 3D content into 2D games.

So, here we have a demo.

The spaceship is in 3D, object that’s in a 2D and same as the asteroid that’s in the 3D object but we’ll bring into the 2D background.

So, the integration brings new possibilities to developing 2D games so we can now officially include 3D content into SpriteKit games.

You can control any of the 3D objects just like any other SKNode.

You can run action on it.

You can run scale.

You can make it follow paths or even make any 3D manipulations.

It’s deeply integrated of the two frameworks, yet it would remain loosely coupled as two independent solutions for the game developers.

So, it is rendered very efficiently together, SceneKit is rendering directly into the OpenGL content.

We’re not passing we’re not rendering to texture and then passing texture around between the two frameworks.

This is a very efficient solution.

So, to bring 3D content into 2D-based games we created SK3DNode.

It is the toll-free bridge allowing you to incorporate any 3D content into SpriteKit-based games.

So, once you have SK3DNode you can attach any of the scnScenes to this SK3DNode in order for it to render in this SKScene.

And once you have the scnScene you can set the scnScene property on an SK3DNode and they will start using this SceneKit render in our render path.

So, how do we create an SK3DNode?

And we have the initializer create a scnNodeWith ViewportSize, you specify a static size.

You can attach any of the scnScene, SceneKit scenes or SceneKit objects through the scnScene property.

You also have access to SCNNode, which gives you the point of view of where the default camera or if there is a camera, where is the pointer where is the camera looking at, at the current scene.

And if the scene doesn’t have any lighting you can use one-liner automatic autoenable DefaultLighting that will turn on add a default light to the scene so all the objects are properly lit.

So, here is a quick example, if we want to add a 3D alien from a [inaudible] into SKScene, which is called SK3DNode initialize with a default viewport.

Load scnScene and set the scene and add it to the SKScene.

Now, the 3D alien object is going to appear.

Now, the integration also goes both ways.

SpriteKit now powers all the texture needs for SceneKit as well as sounds so you can use any SpriteKit texture object directly on SceneKit, that including all of the tools we built from the last version, which is the automatic TextureAtlas generation within Xcode as well as the procedurally generated normal map.

So, you can automatically generate a normal map, put it on any 3D object and the effect looks really, really cool.

And SpriteKit and SceneKit also share the same audio playback interface.

So, having the integration within the 2 frameworks really, really add a lot of possibilities here.

You can have another level of interaction with you user.

For example, have a constant background of 3D and all of the sudden you see a 3D object flying out of the screen.

It’s actually making the user having a third perspective of what a game looks like.

Lastly, I want to talk about tools here.

So, for Xcode 6 we have released a brand new SpriteKit editor.

It is part of Xcode release and you can use it to create any of the game scenes without writing any code.

You can also use it to interact any of the SpriteKit features.

In a nutshell, everything you have seen here today can be done inside of SpriteKit Editor without writing any lines of code.

It forces you also…

[ Applause ]

Thank you!

It also enables you to write the data-driven model.

Writing games usually deals with a lot of data.

And we want to shift the focus from focusing on designing one level rather than have a generic approach of data-oriented programming model.

So, now with SpriteKit Editor we actually separate the game content from the game logic.

So, you no longer have to manually add a spaceship, set a degree at 10-10 and launch the game, recompile it and launch the game and “I’m about five pixels off.

Maybe I’ll add 5 pixels and…”

It takes all the guessing work out of your iteration process!

[ Applause ]

And we also provide simplified game templates that’s in both Swift and Objective-C.

So, out of the box you are good to go and have a brand new scene created for you and ready for drag-and-drop and play, create your level, and making sure your game is running on day one.

Not only can you use SpriteKit Editor as an editor, you can use it as a debugger as well.

So, if you’re in the middle of running your scene, and one of your ships becomes missing, you can use this one line of code and just type that in a debugger, you get an SKS file.

And guess what, you can load that back into Xcode and see what’s going on for that scene and you trace back exactly where the scene hierarchy is.

So, in the case of, say…

If the spaceship got hidden because of the Z order, you can totally see that within the Xcode.

And if you have an existing game that’s not even written for data-oriented programming, you can use the same line of code to serialize it out.

And if you need to retouch it or adding new features, dragging new Xcode in use the editor and add new features in.

They are ready to go.

[ Applause ]

So, some of the basic features that we provide for the SpriteKit Editor allow you to do basic object manipulation and placement, they include position, orientation and scale.

You can set up a physics bodies, bounding box, bounding circles or even the brand new per-pixel physics set up.

You can bring in 3D content from [inaudible] directly into a 2D scene and save it and load it in game and see the 3D object and it’s ready for ready to be manipulated.

And we can set up shadows and lighting effects, inverse kinematics.

You can set up an inverse kinematic joint hierarchy right inside of Xcode and preview that effect right here.

We also provide an integrated shader editor, allowing you to have a WYSIWYG effect of editing your shaders and tuning your shader uniforms.

So, I’m going to give you a quick demo.

So, from Monday’s talk, the “State of the Union” demo, hopefully you have seen how to use SpriteKit Editor to create physics bodies, set up per-pixel physics collusions and also interact with field forces and 3D objects.

So, today the topic that I’m going to cover is how to use SpriteKit Editor to set up lights and shadows using inverse kinematics and how to use the building shader editor to quickly iterate your shaders.

So, let’s have a look.

So, here we have a brand new lighting scene.

So, nothing is in here and ready to go.

If you click in the object library this gives you any existing textures that’s in a current project.

So, if I just drag in a cobblestone and I can make it slightly bigger.

And to see any of the SpriteKit widgets, you just open the object library and, because we’re adding in a SpriteKit scene, its content-sensitive.

It knows these are the SpriteKit objects that’re relevant for this editing experience.

And now let’s drag a light in.

It doesn’t do quite what I want yet, because it hasn’t lit yet.

As you can see the lighting mask that we have on the sprite or on the cobblestone is not set.

So, here if we set it to be 1 we you see that right away, no code of writing, nothing.

So, if you save this file, load it in your scene, this is exactly what you’re going to get, because SpriteKit Editor actually uses SpriteKit writing instead of Xcode.

So, now we can move the scene around, move the light around.

You can see different effects.

And now it’s kind of 2D-ish and blandish.

Maybe we can change the texture so we can automatically generate a normal map on the fly.

Say if I want to make stone a little bit sharp, but also have a bit of contrast I can do that.

It’s just two numbers.

And if I want to make it slightly…

mm, maybe it’s too sharp, it might look very discomfort to walk on.

So, if I want to have lower that, that’s slightly more subtle look.

And if I move that object around as you can see the light, real light.

[ Applause ]

So, now let’s go ahead and add a stone object here.

That’s a little bit too big.

Let’s make it smaller.

And I want the stone to be lit as well so let’s set the lighting mask to be 1, same as the scene object, okay.

And because we want to have maybe a 3D look for this, maybe the stone will need to cast shadows…

we just need to set the shadow mask on that.

So, move it around and now we can change some properties of lighting.

So, I can change the lighting color…

Oh that’s a little weird.

Something normalish, warm color is the way to go, so there.

As soon as you hit File, Save the scene is ready and you are good to go.

You don’t have to do SKLightNode in it, add it to scene, position equals none of that.

So, this is very cool.

So, next I want to show is the inverse kinematics, so here I have a preassembled robot.

I’m just going to give you a quick overview.

So, here I have the arm object.

Arm is parented directly to the scene for the upper arm.

The lower arm is attached as a parent for the upper arm.

And we have the claw that attach to the lower arm.

So, to launch or set up inverse kinematics for this robot I just need to start simulate a scene, select these objects and I can run inverse kinematics on the robot right inside of the editor and to see how it’s set up.

And if you want, that doesn’t look quite right, maybe I need to set a little bit of constraint on there.

Maybe I need to limit to say 90 degrees to 180 degrees for that joint and you can have the same effect.

As you can see it actually reaches back and it will not over-bend that arm at the elbow.

So, that’s the inverse kinematics, very easy to set up.

Again, you don’t have to write any lines of code to see the code effect or use any of the features here.

Plus I want to go over our shaders.

To uses shaders is very easy.

So, here from the widget library I can just pull in a solid color of sprite.

And here I happen to have a custom shader that I can run.

So, how do I set a custom shader?

SpriteKit Editor automatically process your work space and figure out how many FSH files that you have.

So, here I have a single one.

I set that and boom, I’m good to go.


[ Applause ]

This is only half of the equation.

To actually the iteration experience is even better.

So, here if I want to make a change to the shader I just call in the assistant editor.

If I just click on the object it knows which shader you used and it brings up the shader source side-by-side and you’re ready to edit.

You’re ready to make changes and monitor your whole workspace.

So, now if I notice the radius of the center of the circle, I want to shift it a little bit.

So, if I change it to 0.2 and 0.2 and then what happened?

Usually you need to rebuild your application.

You need to rerun the application.

The application will upload a new shader to the OpenGL, GL’s driver will compile whether if you forget a semicolon, guess what?

You start that process again.

Here you just need to do File, Save.

So, if I make Oh, it automatically saved for me.

So, if I change it back to 0.5, 0.5 and file save you see the live change right here.

And what if I decide to add a brand new uniforms to the shader?

So, here I want to add a speed parameter so I can control the effect that I’m having here.

So, if I save that, guess what?

You have real OpenGL annotation error right inside of Xcode.

So, here because I introduced a new uniform that has not been declared so the declaration of current time fails at any the two other places that I referenced to current time will fail as well.

So, how do we fix that?

Because we add this new uniform, let’s go ahead and add that in the dictionary.

So, because we’re calling it “u.speed” we make sure the name matches, u.speed and has a value of 0.

And if I change that to 1 I see the live effect right in the editor and make it spin faster.

Ooh, see there?

OK, let’s make it slower.

So, live shader editing, right inside of Xcode.

[ Applause ]

So that’s the demo of our SpriteKit Editor.

Lastly, I want to go over some additional improvements that we have done to the existing SpriteKit framework APIs.

So, for those of you who are new to SpriteKit, here is the brand new update clock that we have done for this year.

As the frame starts we start with update function.

So, this is where you can set up your game logic.

After that, scene will start evaluating actions.

After the actions are evaluated user gets a callback saying, “Okay if I animate, or move this object from A to B, do I need to do anything else?”

After the actions, physics kicks in and set up the physics use stepping for the frame.

Once physics simulation is finished, user gets another callback with the simulated physics.

And this is where you can set up, say, if the player gets pushed off, maybe I move back by another 5 pixels.

And now with the brand-new constraints API where adding a scene will apply constraints right at this moment.

After constraints are being applied user gets another notification of with didApplyConstraints.

And now we also added one more selector for user to react on called didFinishUpdate.

This is absolutely the last stop before SpriteKit packages everything up and send it to the graphics GPU for the current frame.

And SpriteKit renders the current frame and the same loop continues 60 times per second.

Now, SKTexture got a little bit revamped here.

We introduce a new type of texture called mutable texture.

You can create from data and can be modified very efficiently every frame.

We provide a callback block allowing you to make modifications to the raw pointers.

So, here if I’m just making changes to the raw pixel data you can set that.

So, if you have a really cool CPU-based post-processing effect and you want to modify a texture, you have the freedom to do that.

If you want to have a custom data, you want to send it to a shader as input by sending up all the data as textures, you can do that as well.

Also SKTextures can generate noise textures now.

It generates coherent noise that gives you or the noise vector from a sphere.

So, it supports both the noise generated in the grayscale color, grayscale or the color output.

If it’s generated from a noise vector we have to stay in the color output space.

So, here, to create the noise texture, you just call texture with noise, which you can control the smoothness, as well as control the size.

Now, SKShapeNode also received a lot of revamp this year.

So, we added convenient constructors for common shapes.

They include rectangles, circles, ellipse and splines.

We also allow you to set texture and shaders for both the stroke and fill for the actual shape.

You can use ShapeNode to interact with your physics as well.

If you build up this very complex shape using ShapeNode, you can just access the path property directly and then get a CG path, send it directly to physics, physics will create a physics body for you.

We’ve also made creating pin joints much, much easier.

So, with SKphysicsBody we now have a new property called “pinned”.

To pin an object to another object you just need to set one property.

So, here I have a big gear.

I want to pin it to the board.

I just set the property to yes, SpriteKit will figure out all the parents of the conversion space and whether the other object has physics body.

It will take care of all of that detail for you, very cool.

Now, in addition to pin joint we also make creating weld joint really, really easy.

So, weld joint is just the same as pin joint, which means pinned equal YES, but if it won’t allow rotation that means I’m welded to my parents.

So, here I have a small gear that will be welded to the big gear.

So, we set 2 properties and the physics is automatically set up for you.

In addition, physics body can now be created using compound physics bodies.

All you need to do is just, in SKPhysicsBody we’ll add a new initializer called bodyWithBodies.

You pass in an array of the different physics body shapes.

And for example, hammer here is contained with 2 rectangles, one for the top and the handle.

Now, SKTexture Atlas is our one of the key components to allow users to have efficient graphics performance.

So, anything that’s in a texture atlas we allow OpenGL to do efficient batching here.

So, it’s now supported for both SpriteKit and SceneKit.

We support both retina and non-retina resolutions.

So, if you have a game and have all the assets put in one folder the Texture Atlas generator will separate them for you.

So, you don’t have to pay the memory overhead.

If you’re loading the Texture Atlas on a retina device, you don’t have to load the non-retina asset.

It also supports the full 32-bit pixel format and also the compressed 16 format.

Now, one of the big changes: we now support up to 4k by 4k resolution.

So, it’s a simple change in the Xcode settings for your project.

And in addition we support Runtime Texture Atlas generation.

So, if you have downloadable content, say, user downloaded a new level, everything is coming in loose files, or users go take go out and take some pictures and decide to use that in-game as a cube map, you can just simply pass into the SKTextureAtlas API and we’ll automatically stitch it for you and trim off the transparent pixels.

So, in summary we really have a lot of new features packed in this year’s SpriteKit release.

We have a lot of cool graphics technology like custom shaders, lighting and shadows.

We have really cool simulation effects like inverse kinematics, physics field, per-pixel physics and constraints.

All of these features can be done using one line, or no lines at all if you use the SpriteKit Editor.

So, the SpriteKit Editor is a new edition to the Xcode family and is a really, really cool feature.

I highly encourage you to use it.

And it’s also a good learning experience to see how any of the new features interact with each other within a scene.

And we can’t wait to see what you can come up with all these technologies and tools we provided for this release.

So, with that said, if you have any questions or feedback or anything you want to see in the future, we would like to you can feel free to contact our Developer Evangelist Allan Schaffer and Filip Iliescu and we have a revamped SpriteKit Programming Guide that’s on the Developer Portal.

So, if you want to pick up the documentation for these new features they’re already there.

And for the related session right after this session is the “Best Practices for Building SpriteKit Games”.

We’re going to go into depth of what are the best performance practices and how to set up a game right in order to use these new features and set up for scalability.

And as I said before, we worked really closely with the SceneKit team to making sure SceneKit is also a high-level 3D API just like SpriteKit.

I highly encourage you to check out the SceneKit sessions for tomorrow in the same room for two sessions.

And with that said, thank you very much, this is the end of the session.

I hope you guys have the rest of the a good week.

[ Applause ]

Apple, Inc. AAPL
1 Infinite Loop Cupertino CA 95014 US